Frederick Baker

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== Publications based on Peace Corps Experience ==
== Publications based on Peace Corps Experience ==
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The following is an example of some of my work relating to Thailand.  It seeks to explain the Thai system of moral/civic development.
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Civic Development in Thailand: A Beginning Look at it's Relationship to Formal and Informal Education
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Frederick J. Baker
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College of Education and Integrative Studies
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Cal Poly Pomona University
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Background
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Muang Thai (the land of the free) with a population of some fifty-five million people, covers an area the size of Texas in the part of the world we refer to as Southeast Asia.  It is surrounded by Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Cambodia, and Malaysia.  It is the only country in this area that has not been colonized by the West.
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    This paper should be seen as an attempt to provide background information for the study of civic development in relation to education in Thailand.  The word "background" should be especially stressed.  The author has spent the last thirty-five years as an "on-again, off-again" student of Thailand.  From 1964 to 1966 I served as one of the first Peace Corps Volunteer English teachers in rural Thailand.  From 1968 to 1970, as a Foreign Service member, I worked in Northeast Thailand to support the establishment of a village-based, community development-oriented radio station (Baker, 1984).  Over the next twenty-five years I continued contact with my adopted country through reading, writing, and communication with old friends.  I maintained my Thai language skills (mostly through good Thai restaurants) and have stayed involved with Thai student groups through university teaching.  In 1985 I returned to Thailand as a Fulbright Professor to help build a distance teaching model in support of Thai village-based teachers attaining their baccalaureate degrees (Baker, 1989).  My life-long educational commitment to studying moral education has naturally led to its international dimensions.  These dimensions, as outlined in this paper, are based upon my own socio-anthropological observations as well as a review of the literature as it may pertain to value systems, civic and moral development and education.  I hope, in the future, to have this background take me deeper into the study of civic education in Thailand, especially in terms of teacher education.
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Definitions
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    In studying civic education around the world we find countries falling under one of the following four types:
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1. Countries with radical regimes will de-emphasize both
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  moral and religious education in preference to broad issues
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  in social science and for emphases on participation in school
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  as a matter of citizenship.
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2. Societies with established organized religions will
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  emphasize religious instruction in the curriculum.
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3. Societies built around a tradition of collective authority,
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  but without an established religion, will emphasize moral
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  education in schools.
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4. Emerging societies and states will tend to construct
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  distinctive programs of moral education apart from
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  mainstream instruction in civics or social life. (Cummings,
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    1988)
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    Thailand clearly follows the model defined in number two.  This paper will, therefore, illustrate how civic development is infused throughout Thai educational life in both formal and informal ways through the vehicle of the established Buddhist faith.
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Informal Civic Development: An Overview of Thai Village Life
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    The majority of Thai people today, like their families before them, are rice farmers.  They still live in small, self-sustaining villages.  Cluster villages combine with strip villages to provide rural settlement patterns.  These clusters are usually low-lying areas where there is reasonable assurance that a fair crop of rice can be raised.  In most provinces rice accounts for more than 80 percent of the land under cultivation.  Farmers produce practically all their own food.  They catch fish, build their own houses, and make their own household articles.
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    Villagers look to the government for material and technical assistance such as rice subsidies and well drilling.  There is a general feeling among villagers that the government has a legal and moral obligation to render this assistance.  Villagers themselves are willing to contribute towards this goal.  This would largely be in the form of labor.  There is no single village model for solving group problems or resolving common needs; nor is their any single village leader.  In most cases there are several (Young, 1966).  Official matters that affect the entire community begin in the provincial governor's office.  On the village level, however, they are the primary concern and responsibility of the headman, who in turn usually seeks the counsel of the village elders.  If the matter pertains to education, the school principal and teachers are also consulted.  If necessary a mass meeting is called by the headman to inform the people of the official matter under consideration.  The effective implementation of any group decision affecting the entire community usually requires the assistance of the local abbot and other senior priests who stimulate villagers to collective action (deYoung, 1963).
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    Generally there are somewhere between three and five numerically superior and politically dominant extended family units in the village setting.  The heads of these units form the nucleus of the secular leadership.  They are both a source of strength and a potential source of conflict in community affairs.  As basic socio-political-economic units they serve as multi-purpose problem-solving entities as well.  The members of these units practice mutual aid by helping each other in farming, house building, financial, and personal matters.  Group cooperation in the form of mutual exchange of labor in farming and house building may also involve village units larger than the household and extended family.  This unit, which is activated only when the need arises, is not formally organized and has no permanent set of officers (Philips, 1965).
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    A village usually has several standing committees each with a different function.  These include, above all, the temple and school committees.  Many of the same individuals, such as the headman, school principal, and certain influential village elders, tend to serve on all village committees.
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    Under a centralized form of government the public institutions in the region have little autonomy and are closely guided in their activities by policies and detailed directives formulate by the various ministries in Bangkok.  Likewise, the organization of local institutions conforms to a structure, which is uniform for the entire country.  While general policies governing public services are directed toward the attainment of objectives of national interest, it is also recognized that different regions of Thailand have special problems and needs which require modifications in approach or emphasis (Mosel, 1963).  Observers have pointed out defects in the administrative structure which impede economic development and many government officials are aware of the need for improvement (Mosel, 1957).  In Thailand, history has shown it requires time and patience to foster this educational process within the bureaucratic structure.
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Informal Civic Development: The Place of Religion
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    Thais are extremely comfortable with their Buddhist religion (Wilson, 1962).  Mahayana Buddhism came to Thailand as early as the third century BC and from the thirteenth century onwards has been replaced by Theravada Buddhism as the adopted religion.  An understanding of its basic tenants is necessary to understand how they so strongly apply to moral development in the Thai personality and therefore also apply to Thai education.
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    The basis of Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths, is that life consists of suffering; suffering comes from desire; ending of desire leads to the ending of suffering and rebirth.  This outcome can come about by the pursuit of the Eightfold Path; right understanding, right purpose, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, responsiveness to truth and contemplation.  This Path leads to the Five Moral Precepts; no killing, no stealing, no adultery, no lying, no drinking intoxicants.  Underlying these Precepts are Three Principles; that nothing is permanent, life consists of suffering and the soul is an illusion.  Each of our lives is controlled by karma (each action has a reward or penalty now or in another life).  The ultimate end of all this is nirvana (extinction, nothingness).  The aims of Buddhist education, therefore, were essentially ethical and religious.  This should not be seen to be a narrow viewpoint, however, since religion permeates the whole of Thai society and for that reason could be called national.
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    This faith in traditional religion has saved the Thai from self-criticism and has given them a matter-of-fact approach to life.  Thai villagers face life head-on each and every day.  They are not given to flights of imagination.  The closest things to psychological literature resulting from these fundamental orientations are religious essays, schoolbooks on morality, and satirical fiction and poetry.
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Informal Civic Development: The Thai Personality
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    The major literature on Thai personality tells us much about the inner workings of a Thai villager.  The most famous culture-personality study on Thailand is without a doubt Thai Culture and Behavior (Benedict, 1943).  This study is especially significant since it was one of the first attempts to penetrate the Thai character.  In it she deals with the traditional background of Thailand, its religion and its occupants' adult life.  In the second part of her study, she speaks of Thai children and goes into characteristics of Thai life.  Related to this is the Thai sensitivity to the intentions of others, particularly to the possibility that others may want to do them in.  In order to come out on top the Thai sees the ends as justifying the means.  Here some of her most perceptive writing deals with the Thai enjoyment of life, merit-making, and male dominance.
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    One of Thailand's most famous men of letters is M.R. Khukrit Pramoj, a publisher, editor and lecturer.  His most popular work is Pan-haa Pra-cam-wan, or Problems of Daily Life (1952), a multi-volume set of dialogues in which he answers questions about problems of daily living with an Ann Landers-type format.
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    Possibly the most comprehensive and analytically-oriented looks at the Thai personality is given us in the Cornell Thailand Handbook:
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    ..The psychologist commented that the Thai in general were
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    hospitable people; that the tempo of their lives was slow:
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    that they possessed considerable equanimity: that many
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    Thai actions had a basis in the Buddhist religion; that the
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    Thai respected age; that ritual and ceremony were important
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    facts of Thai life; that the Thai were not steadfast; that they
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    were extravagant; that they were bashful, introverted; that
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    they were not socially minded, that they were not joiners;
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    that the Thai approach to life's concerns were empirical
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    rather than theoretical; that the Thai were indolent; that
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    they were egoistic, self-centered; that they lacked persistence,
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    "stick-to-itiveness"; and that the Thai were a mild people,
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    a non-violent people (Sharp 1956).
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      This is not simply a list of cultural stereotypes but is basically in accord with what most observers have written about the Thai in general.  Another important aspect of this work is its explanation of various Thai words connected with attitudes for which there are no easy equivalents in English.  Included are concepts like kreng-chaj (the attitude of humility involving the desire of not having people trouble themselves); choej-choej (an attitude of indifference or noninvolvement); and maj pen raj (literally, "never mind' or "it doesn't matter"; used to relax in a stress situation or to pass off difficulties in life.
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    Shared Images of Thai Modal Personality Held by Peasants in a Central Plain Community  (Textor, 1956), contains a listing of twelve images that Thais have of themselves in general: "Buddhistness (to be Buddha-like), Easy-Goingness, Fun-Lovingness, Generosity, Untrustworthiness, Self-Centeredness, Tolerance-Indifference, Hierarchy, Fast-Embarrassedness, Politeness, Unobtrusiveness, Lack of Efficiency and Progress."
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    The Simple One: The Story of a Siamese Girlhood (Tirabutana, 1958), provides what is probably the most unique psychological document in the English language.  It is a life history, being non-analytic and descriptive.  It does, however, present in an ingenuous way what it is to feel and think like a Thai.
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    Of a somewhat different order is Som-bad Khong Phuu Dii or Characteristics of a Good Person (Ministry of Education, 1959).  This is a pamphlet used in schools for instruction in morality.  Almost all Thai children are familiar with it.  Following are some of its "commandments" selected at random from the first few pages of the text:
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    1) Do not touch and person in a disrespectful way.
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    2) Do not try to act in the same way as your superior.
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    3) Do not be concerned with your own comfort.
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    4) The good person is one who tries to behave in an honest way.
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    5) Do not shove anything at anybody or throw anything at   
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          anybody.
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    6) Do not make loud noises when people are working.
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      7) Do not spit or yawn in public.
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    8) Do not gobble your food or scatter things on your plate or chew
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          loudly.
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    9) Do not sit or walk carelessly against other people.
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    10) Do not touch people who are your close friends.
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    11) If you are a superior, wherever you go, you should look after the comfort of
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          your inferior.
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    Although the last point is self-explanatory, note should be taken of the cultural emphasis found in many of the items.  There is a stress on self-discipline along with the fear of losing control over oneself.  There is a stress on respecting the individual and a great emphasis given to the body in social relations.  All of these items are standards for behavior.
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      Village Life in Modern Thailand (deYoung, 1963) presents a descriptive account of the daily activities in a Thai village.  Although it was written over thirty-five years ago it still portrays an accurate picture of how villagers work in present-day Thailand, how their life has changed, and points out some of the possibilities for their future.  Mr. deYoung shows how the old Thai basic patterns of life (religion, agriculture, social life) remain secure and strong.  Thai rural society is shown to emit very few of the signs of disintegration that arise when a group is quickly thrown into the modernization process.
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    Thai Peasant Personality (Phillips, 1965) was the first book-length study of Thai psychological life.  In it he described the Thai's dominant personality traits being aimed at the maintenance of their individuality, privacy and sense of self-regard.  Philips tried to demonstrate how the individualistic tendencies of the Thai hinder interpersonal relationships.  This loosely structured system of social relationships has its roots in childhood and is supported by Buddhist doctrine and the sociologically simple nature of Thai society.
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    Basic Thai values were developed in a rural society, but have been upheld by the urban population.  People should be modest, respectful to elders and superiors, generous, hospitable, self-reliant, moderate, and serene. Peacefulness, mildness and non-aggression are important personal values.  One may be educated, industrious, and generous, but is not a good person unless s/he is peaceful.
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    The Thais have an almost uncanny ability to assimilate those living in their midst.  This has led to a fairly homogeneous society despite many tribal groupings in the North, the Chinese in the cities, and the Malays in the South.  Thais have a deep loyalty to the Crown and a sense of membership in the nation state, and almost all are Theravada Buddhists.  They have a concept of the good life that stresses fun, physical comfort and security, intellectual simplicity, practicality and a moral (as contrasted with the natural) ordering of the universe.
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    People tend to avoid unhappy or emotionally charged situations.  To be cool-hearted and uninvolved are general Thai values, along with the contrasting but not conflicting Buddhist virtues of emphatic joy, loving kindness, and compassion for others.  Unlike the Japanese or New England Puritans, work is not seen as good in itself.  Pleasure and enjoyment are the important characteristics.  Obligations are recognized, but are not supposed to burden the individual unduly.  The culture gives great importance to the individual and his/her right to act as s/he sees fit.
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    The Thai family structure is of great importance in the society.  It has been characterized by many sociologists as being a loosely structured family in which members are added or leave at any time.  Some children wander from place to place spending their childhood with several different families.  Many children are sent to Bangkok for schooling, and it is not uncommon for a husband or wife to leave for several months to work in another part of the country.
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    The psychological and motivational effects of this type of family life cannot be underestimated.  With the looseness of the family structure there are some instances of poor care, exploitation, rejection by foster parents, deprivation of education, and a lack of secure roots.  The breakdown of traditional patterns of care for needy relatives and friends tends to throw the needy on their own and increases dependence on the state. Problems face the Thai family, many of which are due to pressures of modernization.  The increased cost of living creates new tensions.  The old ways of child rearing and mate selection are being challenged, and all the problems of the rural person in an urban environment cause new marital difficulties.  Rapid social changes have produced strains between the generations.  The young have a different outlook and different expectations.  The old, due to their traditional authority, tend to dominate, and when the young see this coming from persons inferior to themselves in certain respects, tensions and conflicts arise.  These conflicts tend to arise more often in lower class youth who are upwardly mobile, and whose parents are, in general, more traditional in outlook.
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    Thai children are seldom seen crying or acting up.  The adult
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Thai's lack of resourcefulness, inventiveness, and ability to think
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and reason independently has been attributed by some authorities to
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the child's lack opportunity to develop his own interests and skills.  The village child is anything but a tabula rasa at birth.  S/he enters the world with a stock of merit or demerits from previous lives, which will affect his/her being in this life.  A child can be taught virtue and good habits, but prenatal characteristics are the basic determinants of life.
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    When it comes to education the overseas degree is of great value and attending the best university in Thailand is of real importance, perhaps more important to many than what is actually learned.  It is the symbol, which is important.  The Thais lack the aggressiveness of some of the other Asian cultures, and this may be due in part to their national heritage of many centuries with no colonial experience to make them lose confidence in themselves.  This self-confidence has been an important factor in the ability of the Thais to assimilate the large Chinese population.
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Formal Civic Development: The Thai Educational System
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    The Thai educational system has been operating for over seven hundred years.  Any similarity between Thailand and Western countries has gone through a much older traditional system starting with Buddhist temples.  It has taken little more than the last one hundred years to change from its traditional temple form to the system that is known today.  From the 1820's to the 1920's a transition was made from informal temple teaching (by Buddhist monks) to a standard education under the supervision of a centralized educational system.  It is fascinating to note, however, that over a fifth of Thailand's primary schools are still situated in Buddhist monasteries (Watson, 1980).
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    A need to preserve the past and the recognition to plan for the future saw kings like Nangklao, Mongkut, Chulalongkorn and Wachirawut build schools where students learned manners of the court as well as how to be provincial administrators.  Teachers, as a result of their commitment to not only reading and writing but also how to be a good person, were regarded as Buchaneeyabukala, a person worthy of veneration.  As the early teachers were monks practicing Dhamma (the way of Buddha), who not only imparted knowledge but gave spiritual guidance and provided a home and protection for the learner, their students returned in kind by serving them and showing proper respect.  The manners and social conduct of these teachers were the models the students, therefore, tried to copy.  Education as pursued within the Buddhist spiritual and philosophical framework was built on the fertility of the land, deep devotion to the Monarchy and was consistent with Thai Buddhist concepts of kinship that helped lead to an overall degree of a feeling of peace and happiness.  As the Thais are fond of saying, "If there is rice in the field and fish in the water all is right with the world."  Mass education and universal compulsory education came to be based on a traditional foundation of education first found in these monasteries (Bunnag, 1970).  The year 1893 marked the 700th anniversary of the invention of the Thai alphabet.  Today literacy is no longer a privilege granted to a few but is considered a basic right of every Thai.
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    All educational activities can be seen as being responsive to national policy.  This policy is wide-ranging and recognizes that the State has the sole responsibility for its implementation.  Compulsory education is to be universal, free, and support literacy for all citizens.  National Development Plans clearly outlined attitudes and beliefs for schools.  The following examples come from the Third Plan (1972-76):
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  1) Power belongs to the people as a whole and not to any individual
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      alone.
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  2) Power which is not ethical, or which is derived from corrupt
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      practices will not be accepted.
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  3) Faith in a religion rather than a false belief is desirable.
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  4) The habit of frugality must be cultivated.
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      Under the National Education Charter approved by the National Education Commission in 1977, education was conceived as a continuing life-long process, which promotes the quality of life of Thai citizens, enabling them to live a useful life in society.  Higher education institutes are given academic freedom provided that they do not go against the policy, work-plan and programs of the country and provided that they operate under the State's supervision and within the framework of relevant legislation.  That legislation, for example, (as embodied in the Fifth Educational Development Plan of 1982-86) clearly provided for the improvement, adjustment and modification of the content and substance of academic, professional and moral courses as found in the curricula of primary, secondary, vocational, teacher training and non-formal education.
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    Looking at selected statements embodied in the elementary school curriculum of 1978 can easily see national support for civic development.  Some of them include:
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  1) Awareness of one's rights and responsibilities;
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  2) Obtain practical experiences of good citizenry with the Monarch
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      as the Head of State;
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  3) Recognition of the importance of living together peacefully in a
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      family, in a community, and in a society;
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  4) Awareness of the value of being free, and taking pride in having
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      been born on Thai soil.
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  5) Desirable qualities: Self-sacrifice and unselfishness, self-
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    discipline and perseverance, diligence, honesty, frugality and
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    endurance, tolerance of criticism and respect for individuals,
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    sportsmanship and esteem for others, participation, cooperation
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      and leadership.
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  6) Peaceful life: Understanding and having faith in one's professed
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      religion, and applying its precepts in daily life and ;
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  7) Knowing how to solve problems by peaceful means. (APEID,
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      1984).
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    The elementary and secondary school curriculums are meant for all children and aim at building national unity.  They must contain learning experiences that include the Thai language, life experiences for the purpose of survival and leading a good life, character development and work-oriented experience.  In communities where the majority of the population is non-Buddhist, the teaching of religious practices other than those advocated in Buddhism is quite possible but the program is subject to the approval of the Regional Education Officer.
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    The government also instituted parallel policies for non-formal education.  It sought to promote and encourage the mass media to take a role in spreading occupational knowledge, beneficial to the livelihood of the public and to transmit proper traditional values attitudes as well as language, arts, culture and morality, all of which constitute the background for social, economic and political
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development (NESDB, 1981).
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Formal Civic Development Through Teacher Education
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    The Thai system of teacher education dates back more than one hundred years to the time of King Chulalongkorn.  As more teachers were needed a Ministry of Education was established and by 1928 twenty-five schools were in operation.  There are now thirty-six teacher colleges evenly distributed geographically and population-wise.  These colleges have gone through a recent change making them more comprehensive universities.  There is now one university for every two provinces in Thailand.
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      The thread of civic development also runs through the objectives of the Ministry of Education.  Selected aims published by the Department of Teacher Education during the Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan illustrate this support.  Examples of policy include:
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  1) The Department will produce graduates of quality and good
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    morals who are able to adjust themselves to economic and social
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      changes.
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  2) The Department will promote the study, preservation,
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    development, and dissemination of Thai culture, local and
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      national.
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  3) The Department will encourage the management of institutional
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    environments to enhance students' self-development, and also to
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    motivate the students to participate in co-curricular activities.
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  4) The curriculum will contain general education courses aimed at
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      preparing students to become good citizens, to be able to earn
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      their living peacefully, and to be able to create jobs themselves
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      (Ministry of Education, 1985).
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Summary
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    Where does this all take us?  Thailand has had an obviously strong history of education.  It has also had an overriding concern for moral development based upon its Buddhist principles.  It might well be argued that these principles are not now seen primarily as religious but rather as a way of life.  The public documents, principles, tenants, aims, etc. that have been enumerated here are actually carried out in practice in classrooms throughout the country.  It will be interesting to follow their path as more and more Western approaches and ideas are implemented within the educational system.  The Buddhist emphasis on the individual and the traditional acceptance of a hierarchical social structure might well come in conflict with our Western intellectual curiosity and social mobility.  This system may become out of touch with the rural population as the educational system that services it strays from its traditional roots.  The Thai response "maj pen raj" (it doesn't matter) may no longer be sufficient when dealing with the new realities of civic education within its society.
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References
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Baker, Frederick J.  (1984).  "Educational Radio in Northeast Thailand: Community Development and Station 909". International  Education. 13,2 (Spring).
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Baker, Frederick J. (1990)  "Distance Teaching in Thailand: Teacher Education Comes of Age".  Phi Beta Delta International Review.  Arlington: University of Texas.
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Benedict, Ruth.  (1963).  Thai Culture and Behavior. An Unpublished War Time Study Dated September, 1943.  Data Paper:  Number 4.  Southeast Asia Program.  Department of Asian Studies.  Ithaca, New York:  Cornell University.
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Bunnag, Tej.  (1970). "From Monastery to University Education in Thailand:  A Century of Experience."  Dept. of Elementary and Adult Education.  Ministry of Education.  Bangkok:  Karnsosana Press.
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Cummings, William and Gopinathan, S. (1988). The Revival of Values Education in Asia and the West. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
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Department of Teacher Education.  (1985).  Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan.  Bangkok: Ministry of Education Press.
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de Young, John E.  (1963).  Village Life in Modern Thailand.  Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press.
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Ministry of Education.  (1978).  Elementary School Curriculum, BE 2521 (AD1978).  Bangkok: Ministry of Education Press.
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Ministry of Education.  (1972).  Third National Development Plan (1972-76). Bangkok:  Ministry of Education Press.
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Ministry of Education.  (1959).  Som-bad Khon Phuuu Dii. (pamphlet)  Bangkok.
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Mosel, James N.  (1957).  "Thai Administrative Behavior."  Toward the Comparative Study of Public Administration.  (Ed) W.J. Siffin. Blomington: Indiana Univ.
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Mosel, James N.  (1963).  "Transitional Thailand:  Communication Patterns and Political Socialization."  Communication and Political Development.  (Ed) Lucian Pye.  Princeton: Princeton  Univ. Press.
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National Education Commission. (1977).  National Education Charter. Bangkok.
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National Economic and Social Development Board.  (1981).  The Fifth Economic and Social Development Plan, B.E. 2525-2529. Bangkok.
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Philips, Herbert P.  (1965).  Thai Peasant Personality. Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press.
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Pramoj, M.R. Khukrit.  (1952).  Pan-haa  Pra-cam-wan.  Bangkok.
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Sharp, More, Vella and Walter.  (1956).  Handbook on Thailand.  New Haven:  Human Relations Area Files.
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Trirabutana, Prajuab.  (1958).  The Simple One: The Story of a Siamese Girlhood.  Data Paper No. 30, 1958. Ithaca, N.Y.:  Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
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UNESCO.  (1984).  Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and The Pacific.  Bangkok: UNESCO Regional Office for  Education in Asia and the Pacific.
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Watson, Keith.  (1980).  Educational Development in Thailand.  HongKong: Heinemann Asia.
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Wilson, David A.  (1962).  Politics in Thailand.  New York:  Cornell Univ. Press.
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Young, Stephen B.  (1966).  The Northeastern village: A Non-Participatory Democracy.  Bangkok.
== References  ==
== References  ==

Revision as of 15:10, 2 May 2008



Frederick John Baker
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Country Thailand
Years: 1964-1966
Site(s) Chachoengsao
Program(s) Education
Assignment(s) English Teacher Trainerwarning.png"English Teacher Trainer" is not in the list of possible values (Agroforestry, Sustainable Agricultural Science, Farm Management and Agribusiness, Animal Husbandry, Municipal Development, Small Business Development, NGO Development, Urban and Regional Planning, Primary Teacher/Training, Secondary Teacher/Training, Math/Science Teacher/Training, Special Education/Training, Deaf/Education, Vocational Teacher/Training, University Teacher/Training, English Teacher/Training (TEFL), Environmental Education, National Park Management, Dry Land Natural Resource Conservation, Fisheries Fresh, Ecotourism Development, Coastal /Fisheries Resource Management, Public Health Education, AIDS Awareness, Information Technology, Skilled Trades, Water and Sanitation Resources Engineering, Housing Construction Development, Youth, Other) for this property.
Frederick Baker started in Thailand 1964
Frederick Baker
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Kevin Acers, Frederick Baker, Rachel Bobruff, Carol Sue Chapman, Gerry Christmas, Charlene Day, Carol Ginzburg, Tony P. Hall, Tim Hartigan, Gary Helton … further results
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Contents

Description of Service

Lessons Learned

About Frederick Baker Today

Bio Statement: Frederick J. Baker, Ph.D.

Dr. Baker is presently an Emeritus Professor of Education in the Department of Education, College of Education and Integrated Studies at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. An international teacher educator, Baker has lived overseas some thirteen years (mostly in economically developing countries). The recipient of numerous grants and awards including an Asian Foundation grant, a Teacher Corps grant in Micronesia, a Peace Corps development grant, and a Fulbright fellowship in Thailand, Baker specializes in field-based and international models for teacher education.

Besides Micronesia and Thailand, Baker has directed programs in Belize, England, China, Mexico, Latvia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Guyana, and the Lao, People's Democratic Republic. He served as a World Bank Consultant through the Consortium for International Development building a community college system in Sana’a, Yemen. Just before retiring he had a sabbatical in Florence, Italy and presently is accompanying his wife Rosalie while she directs the California State University Education Abroad Program in Aix en Provence, France.

Baker holds a BA degree from Central Michigan University, a MAT degree from Antioch College and a Ph.D. degree from Michigan State University.

A former Peace Corps Volunteer in Chachoengsao, Thailand, he has also served in the Foreign Service in Thailand, been an inner-city middle school teacher in Washington,D.C., a Director of Field Experiences at Central Michigan University, and Assistant Director of Teacher Education at the University of California, Irvine. At Cal Poly Pomona he was Chair of the Department of Teacher Education for over six years and has received the institutions Outstanding Academic Advisor Award and the Outstanding International Scholar award.

Dr. Baker has authored over one hundred twenty publications. His most recent books, Reforming America’s Schools: From Teachers and Curriculum to Globalization and Interdisciplinary Projects, and Ways of Coexisting: Urban, Suburban, and Global Communities, were published by Kendall/Hunt.

A Thai and Lao speaker, Baker is frequently asked to consult on international and multicultural topics, especially regarding curriculum development, teacher education and educational policy in economically developing countries.

External Links

Publications based on Peace Corps Experience

The following is an example of some of my work relating to Thailand. It seeks to explain the Thai system of moral/civic development.


Civic Development in Thailand: A Beginning Look at it's Relationship to Formal and Informal Education


Frederick J. Baker College of Education and Integrative Studies Cal Poly Pomona University


Background Muang Thai (the land of the free) with a population of some fifty-five million people, covers an area the size of Texas in the part of the world we refer to as Southeast Asia. It is surrounded by Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Cambodia, and Malaysia. It is the only country in this area that has not been colonized by the West.

    	This paper should be seen as an attempt to provide background information for the study of civic development in relation to education in Thailand.  The word "background" should be especially stressed.  The author has spent the last thirty-five years as an "on-again, off-again" student of Thailand.  From 1964 to 1966 I served as one of the first Peace Corps Volunteer English teachers in rural Thailand.  From 1968 to 1970, as a Foreign Service member, I worked in Northeast Thailand to support the establishment of a village-based, community development-oriented radio station (Baker, 1984).  Over the next twenty-five years I continued contact with my adopted country through reading, writing, and communication with old friends.  I maintained my Thai language skills (mostly through good Thai restaurants) and have stayed involved with Thai student groups through university teaching.  In 1985 I returned to Thailand as a Fulbright Professor to help build a distance teaching model in support of Thai village-based teachers attaining their baccalaureate degrees (Baker, 1989).  My life-long educational commitment to studying moral education has naturally led to its international dimensions.  These dimensions, as outlined in this paper, are based upon my own socio-anthropological observations as well as a review of the literature as it may pertain to value systems, civic and moral development and education.  I hope, in the future, to have this background take me deeper into the study of civic education in Thailand, especially in terms of teacher education.

Definitions

    In studying civic education around the world we find countries falling under one of the following four types:

1. Countries with radical regimes will de-emphasize both

	   moral and religious education in preference to broad issues 

in social science and for emphases on participation in school as a matter of citizenship. 2. Societies with established organized religions will emphasize religious instruction in the curriculum. 3. Societies built around a tradition of collective authority, but without an established religion, will emphasize moral education in schools. 4. Emerging societies and states will tend to construct distinctive programs of moral education apart from mainstream instruction in civics or social life. (Cummings, 1988)

    	Thailand clearly follows the model defined in number two.  This paper will, therefore, illustrate how civic development is infused throughout Thai educational life in both formal and informal ways through the vehicle of the established Buddhist faith.

Informal Civic Development: An Overview of Thai Village Life

    	The majority of Thai people today, like their families before them, are rice farmers.  They still live in small, self-sustaining villages.  Cluster villages combine with strip villages to provide rural settlement patterns.  These clusters are usually low-lying areas where there is reasonable assurance that a fair crop of rice can be raised.  In most provinces rice accounts for more than 80 percent of the land under cultivation.  Farmers produce practically all their own food.  They catch fish, build their own houses, and make their own household articles.
    	Villagers look to the government for material and technical assistance such as rice subsidies and well drilling.  There is a general feeling among villagers that the government has a legal and moral obligation to render this assistance.  Villagers themselves are willing to contribute towards this goal.  This would largely be in the form of labor.  There is no single village model for solving group problems or resolving common needs; nor is their any single village leader.  In most cases there are several (Young, 1966).  Official matters that affect the entire community begin in the provincial governor's office.  On the village level, however, they are the primary concern and responsibility of the headman, who in turn usually seeks the counsel of the village elders.  If the matter pertains to education, the school principal and teachers are also consulted.  If necessary a mass meeting is called by the headman to inform the people of the official matter under consideration.  The effective implementation of any group decision affecting the entire community usually requires the assistance of the local abbot and other senior priests who stimulate villagers to collective action (deYoung, 1963).
    	Generally there are somewhere between three and five numerically superior and politically dominant extended family units in the village setting.  The heads of these units form the nucleus of the secular leadership.  They are both a source of strength and a potential source of conflict in community affairs.  As basic socio-political-economic units they serve as multi-purpose problem-solving entities as well.  The members of these units practice mutual aid by helping each other in farming, house building, financial, and personal matters.  Group cooperation in the form of mutual exchange of labor in farming and house building may also involve village units larger than the household and extended family.  This unit, which is activated only when the need arises, is not formally organized and has no permanent set of officers (Philips, 1965).
    	A village usually has several standing committees each with a different function.  These include, above all, the temple and school committees.  Many of the same individuals, such as the headman, school principal, and certain influential village elders, tend to serve on all village committees.
    	Under a centralized form of government the public institutions in the region have little autonomy and are closely guided in their activities by policies and detailed directives formulate by the various ministries in Bangkok.  Likewise, the organization of local institutions conforms to a structure, which is uniform for the entire country.  While general policies governing public services are directed toward the attainment of objectives of national interest, it is also recognized that different regions of Thailand have special problems and needs which require modifications in approach or emphasis (Mosel, 1963).  Observers have pointed out defects in the administrative structure which impede economic development and many government officials are aware of the need for improvement (Mosel, 1957).  In Thailand, history has shown it requires time and patience to foster this educational process within the bureaucratic structure.

Informal Civic Development: The Place of Religion

    Thais are extremely comfortable with their Buddhist religion (Wilson, 1962).  Mahayana Buddhism came to Thailand as early as the third century BC and from the thirteenth century onwards has been replaced by Theravada Buddhism as the adopted religion.  An understanding of its basic tenants is necessary to understand how they so strongly apply to moral development in the Thai personality and therefore also apply to Thai education. 
    	The basis of Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths, is that life consists of suffering; suffering comes from desire; ending of desire leads to the ending of suffering and rebirth.  This outcome can come about by the pursuit of the Eightfold Path; right understanding, right purpose, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, responsiveness to truth and contemplation.  This Path leads to the Five Moral Precepts; no killing, no stealing, no adultery, no lying, no drinking intoxicants.  Underlying these Precepts are Three Principles; that nothing is permanent, life consists of suffering and the soul is an illusion.  Each of our lives is controlled by karma (each action has a reward or penalty now or in another life).  The ultimate end of all this is nirvana (extinction, nothingness).  The aims of Buddhist education, therefore, were essentially ethical and religious.  This should not be seen to be a narrow viewpoint, however, since religion permeates the whole of Thai society and for that reason could be called national.
    	This faith in traditional religion has saved the Thai from self-criticism and has given them a matter-of-fact approach to life.  Thai villagers face life head-on each and every day.  They are not given to flights of imagination.  The closest things to psychological literature resulting from these fundamental orientations are religious essays, schoolbooks on morality, and satirical fiction and poetry.

Informal Civic Development: The Thai Personality

    	The major literature on Thai personality tells us much about the inner workings of a Thai villager.  The most famous culture-personality study on Thailand is without a doubt Thai Culture and Behavior (Benedict, 1943).  This study is especially significant since it was one of the first attempts to penetrate the Thai character.  In it she deals with the traditional background of Thailand, its religion and its occupants' adult life.  In the second part of her study, she speaks of Thai children and goes into characteristics of Thai life.  Related to this is the Thai sensitivity to the intentions of others, particularly to the possibility that others may want to do them in.  In order to come out on top the Thai sees the ends as justifying the means.  Here some of her most perceptive writing deals with the Thai enjoyment of life, merit-making, and male dominance.
    	One of Thailand's most famous men of letters is M.R. Khukrit Pramoj, a publisher, editor and lecturer.  His most popular work is Pan-haa Pra-cam-wan, or Problems of Daily Life (1952), a multi-volume set of dialogues in which he answers questions about problems of daily living with an Ann Landers-type format.
    	Possibly the most comprehensive and analytically-oriented looks at the Thai personality is given us in the Cornell Thailand Handbook:
    ..The psychologist commented that the Thai in general were 
    hospitable people; that the tempo of their lives was slow:
    that they possessed considerable equanimity: that many
    Thai actions had a basis in the Buddhist religion; that the
    Thai respected age; that ritual and ceremony were important
    facts of Thai life; that the Thai were not steadfast; that they
    were extravagant; that they were bashful, introverted; that
    they were not socially minded, that they were not joiners;
    that the Thai approach to life's concerns were empirical
    rather than theoretical; that the Thai were indolent; that
    they were egoistic, self-centered; that they lacked persistence,
    "stick-to-itiveness"; and that the Thai were a mild people,
    a non-violent people (Sharp 1956).
     	This is not simply a list of cultural stereotypes but is basically in accord with what most observers have written about the Thai in general.  Another important aspect of this work is its explanation of various Thai words connected with attitudes for which there are no easy equivalents in English.  Included are concepts like kreng-chaj (the attitude of humility involving the desire of not having people trouble themselves); choej-choej (an attitude of indifference or noninvolvement); and maj pen raj (literally, "never mind' or "it doesn't matter"; used to relax in a stress situation or to pass off difficulties in life.
    	Shared Images of Thai Modal Personality Held by Peasants in a Central Plain Community  (Textor, 1956), contains a listing of twelve images that Thais have of themselves in general: "Buddhistness (to be Buddha-like), Easy-Goingness, Fun-Lovingness, Generosity, Untrustworthiness, Self-Centeredness, Tolerance-Indifference, Hierarchy, Fast-Embarrassedness, Politeness, Unobtrusiveness, Lack of Efficiency and Progress."
    	The Simple One: The Story of a Siamese Girlhood (Tirabutana, 1958), provides what is probably the most unique psychological document in the English language.  It is a life history, being non-analytic and descriptive.  It does, however, present in an ingenuous way what it is to feel and think like a Thai.
   	Of a somewhat different order is Som-bad Khong Phuu Dii or Characteristics of a Good Person (Ministry of Education, 1959).  This is a pamphlet used in schools for instruction in morality.  Almost all Thai children are familiar with it.  Following are some of its "commandments" selected at random from the first few pages of the text:
    1) Do not touch and person in a disrespectful way.
    2) Do not try to act in the same way as your superior.
    3) Do not be concerned with your own comfort.
    4) The good person is one who tries to behave in an honest way.
    5) Do not shove anything at anybody or throw anything at    
         anybody.
    6) Do not make loud noises when people are working.
     7) Do not spit or yawn in public.
    8) Do not gobble your food or scatter things on your plate or chew
         loudly.
    9) Do not sit or walk carelessly against other people.
   10) Do not touch people who are your close friends.
   11) If you are a superior, wherever you go, you should look after the comfort of
         your inferior.
    	Although the last point is self-explanatory, note should be taken of the cultural emphasis found in many of the items.  There is a stress on self-discipline along with the fear of losing control over oneself.  There is a stress on respecting the individual and a great emphasis given to the body in social relations.  All of these items are standards for behavior.
     	Village Life in Modern Thailand (deYoung, 1963) presents a descriptive account of the daily activities in a Thai village.  Although it was written over thirty-five years ago it still portrays an accurate picture of how villagers work in present-day Thailand, how their life has changed, and points out some of the possibilities for their future.  Mr. deYoung shows how the old Thai basic patterns of life (religion, agriculture, social life) remain secure and strong.  Thai rural society is shown to emit very few of the signs of disintegration that arise when a group is quickly thrown into the modernization process.
   	Thai Peasant Personality (Phillips, 1965) was the first book-length study of Thai psychological life.  In it he described the Thai's dominant personality traits being aimed at the maintenance of their individuality, privacy and sense of self-regard.  Philips tried to demonstrate how the individualistic tendencies of the Thai hinder interpersonal relationships.  This loosely structured system of social relationships has its roots in childhood and is supported by Buddhist doctrine and the sociologically simple nature of Thai society.
    	Basic Thai values were developed in a rural society, but have been upheld by the urban population.  People should be modest, respectful to elders and superiors, generous, hospitable, self-reliant, moderate, and serene. Peacefulness, mildness and non-aggression are important personal values.  One may be educated, industrious, and generous, but is not a good person unless s/he is peaceful.
    	The Thais have an almost uncanny ability to assimilate those living in their midst.  This has led to a fairly homogeneous society despite many tribal groupings in the North, the Chinese in the cities, and the Malays in the South.  Thais have a deep loyalty to the Crown and a sense of membership in the nation state, and almost all are Theravada Buddhists.  They have a concept of the good life that stresses fun, physical comfort and security, intellectual simplicity, practicality and a moral (as contrasted with the natural) ordering of the universe.
    	People tend to avoid unhappy or emotionally charged situations.  To be cool-hearted and uninvolved are general Thai values, along with the contrasting but not conflicting Buddhist virtues of emphatic joy, loving kindness, and compassion for others.  Unlike the Japanese or New England Puritans, work is not seen as good in itself.  Pleasure and enjoyment are the important characteristics.  Obligations are recognized, but are not supposed to burden the individual unduly.  The culture gives great importance to the individual and his/her right to act as s/he sees fit.
    	The Thai family structure is of great importance in the society.  It has been characterized by many sociologists as being a loosely structured family in which members are added or leave at any time.  Some children wander from place to place spending their childhood with several different families.  Many children are sent to Bangkok for schooling, and it is not uncommon for a husband or wife to leave for several months to work in another part of the country.
    	The psychological and motivational effects of this type of family life cannot be underestimated.  With the looseness of the family structure there are some instances of poor care, exploitation, rejection by foster parents, deprivation of education, and a lack of secure roots.  The breakdown of traditional patterns of care for needy relatives and friends tends to throw the needy on their own and increases dependence on the state. Problems face the Thai family, many of which are due to pressures of modernization.  The increased cost of living creates new tensions.  The old ways of child rearing and mate selection are being challenged, and all the problems of the rural person in an urban environment cause new marital difficulties.  Rapid social changes have produced strains between the generations.  The young have a different outlook and different expectations.  The old, due to their traditional authority, tend to dominate, and when the young see this coming from persons inferior to themselves in certain respects, tensions and conflicts arise.  These conflicts tend to arise more often in lower class youth who are upwardly mobile, and whose parents are, in general, more traditional in outlook.
    	Thai children are seldom seen crying or acting up.  The adult

Thai's lack of resourcefulness, inventiveness, and ability to think and reason independently has been attributed by some authorities to the child's lack opportunity to develop his own interests and skills. The village child is anything but a tabula rasa at birth. S/he enters the world with a stock of merit or demerits from previous lives, which will affect his/her being in this life. A child can be taught virtue and good habits, but prenatal characteristics are the basic determinants of life.

   	 When it comes to education the overseas degree is of great value and attending the best university in Thailand is of real importance, perhaps more important to many than what is actually learned.  It is the symbol, which is important.  The Thais lack the aggressiveness of some of the other Asian cultures, and this may be due in part to their national heritage of many centuries with no colonial experience to make them lose confidence in themselves.  This self-confidence has been an important factor in the ability of the Thais to assimilate the large Chinese population.

Formal Civic Development: The Thai Educational System

    	The Thai educational system has been operating for over seven hundred years.  Any similarity between Thailand and Western countries has gone through a much older traditional system starting with Buddhist temples.  It has taken little more than the last one hundred years to change from its traditional temple form to the system that is known today.  From the 1820's to the 1920's a transition was made from informal temple teaching (by Buddhist monks) to a standard education under the supervision of a centralized educational system.  It is fascinating to note, however, that over a fifth of Thailand's primary schools are still situated in Buddhist monasteries (Watson, 1980).
    	A need to preserve the past and the recognition to plan for the future saw kings like Nangklao, Mongkut, Chulalongkorn and Wachirawut build schools where students learned manners of the court as well as how to be provincial administrators.  Teachers, as a result of their commitment to not only reading and writing but also how to be a good person, were regarded as Buchaneeyabukala, a person worthy of veneration.  As the early teachers were monks practicing Dhamma (the way of Buddha), who not only imparted knowledge but gave spiritual guidance and provided a home and protection for the learner, their students returned in kind by serving them and showing proper respect.  The manners and social conduct of these teachers were the models the students, therefore, tried to copy.  Education as pursued within the Buddhist spiritual and philosophical framework was built on the fertility of the land, deep devotion to the Monarchy and was consistent with Thai Buddhist concepts of kinship that helped lead to an overall degree of a feeling of peace and happiness.  As the Thais are fond of saying, "If there is rice in the field and fish in the water all is right with the world."  Mass education and universal compulsory education came to be based on a traditional foundation of education first found in these monasteries (Bunnag, 1970).  The year 1893 marked the 700th anniversary of the invention of the Thai alphabet.  Today literacy is no longer a privilege granted to a few but is considered a basic right of every Thai.
    	All educational activities can be seen as being responsive to national policy.  This policy is wide-ranging and recognizes that the State has the sole responsibility for its implementation.  Compulsory education is to be universal, free, and support literacy for all citizens.  National Development Plans clearly outlined attitudes and beliefs for schools.  The following examples come from the Third Plan (1972-76):
 1) Power belongs to the people as a whole and not to any individual 
      alone.
 2) Power which is not ethical, or which is derived from corrupt 
     practices will not be accepted.
 3) Faith in a religion rather than a false belief is desirable.
 4) The habit of frugality must be cultivated.
     	Under the National Education Charter approved by the National Education Commission in 1977, education was conceived as a continuing life-long process, which promotes the quality of life of Thai citizens, enabling them to live a useful life in society.  Higher education institutes are given academic freedom provided that they do not go against the policy, work-plan and programs of the country and provided that they operate under the State's supervision and within the framework of relevant legislation.  That legislation, for example, (as embodied in the Fifth Educational Development Plan of 1982-86) clearly provided for the improvement, adjustment and modification of the content and substance of academic, professional and moral courses as found in the curricula of primary, secondary, vocational, teacher training and non-formal education.
    	Looking at selected statements embodied in the elementary school curriculum of 1978 can easily see national support for civic development.  Some of them include:
 1) Awareness of one's rights and responsibilities;
 2) Obtain practical experiences of good citizenry with the Monarch 
     as the Head of State;
 3) Recognition of the importance of living together peacefully in a 
     family, in a community, and in a society;
 4) Awareness of the value of being free, and taking pride in having 
     been born on Thai soil.
 5) Desirable qualities: Self-sacrifice and unselfishness, self-
    discipline and perseverance, diligence, honesty, frugality and 
    endurance, tolerance of criticism and respect for individuals, 
    sportsmanship and esteem for others, participation, cooperation
     and leadership.
 6) Peaceful life: Understanding and having faith in one's professed
     religion, and applying its precepts in daily life and ;
 7) Knowing how to solve problems by peaceful means. (APEID, 
     1984).
    	The elementary and secondary school curriculums are meant for all children and aim at building national unity.  They must contain learning experiences that include the Thai language, life experiences for the purpose of survival and leading a good life, character development and work-oriented experience.  In communities where the majority of the population is non-Buddhist, the teaching of religious practices other than those advocated in Buddhism is quite possible but the program is subject to the approval of the Regional Education Officer.
    	The government also instituted parallel policies for non-formal education.  It sought to promote and encourage the mass media to take a role in spreading occupational knowledge, beneficial to the livelihood of the public and to transmit proper traditional values attitudes as well as language, arts, culture and morality, all of which constitute the background for social, economic and political 

development (NESDB, 1981).

Formal Civic Development Through Teacher Education

    	The Thai system of teacher education dates back more than one hundred years to the time of King Chulalongkorn.  As more teachers were needed a Ministry of Education was established and by 1928 twenty-five schools were in operation.  There are now thirty-six teacher colleges evenly distributed geographically and population-wise.  These colleges have gone through a recent change making them more comprehensive universities.  There is now one university for every two provinces in Thailand.
     	The thread of civic development also runs through the objectives of the Ministry of Education.  Selected aims published by the Department of Teacher Education during the Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan illustrate this support.  Examples of policy include:
 1) The Department will produce graduates of quality and good 
    morals who are able to adjust themselves to economic and social 
     changes.
 2) The Department will promote the study, preservation, 
    development, and dissemination of Thai culture, local and 
     national.
 3) The Department will encourage the management of institutional
    environments to enhance students' self-development, and also to 
    motivate the students to participate in co-curricular activities.
 4) The curriculum will contain general education courses aimed at 
     preparing students to become good citizens, to be able to earn 
     their living peacefully, and to be able to create jobs themselves 
     (Ministry of Education, 1985).

Summary

    	Where does this all take us?  Thailand has had an obviously strong history of education.  It has also had an overriding concern for moral development based upon its Buddhist principles.  It might well be argued that these principles are not now seen primarily as religious but rather as a way of life.  The public documents, principles, tenants, aims, etc. that have been enumerated here are actually carried out in practice in classrooms throughout the country.  It will be interesting to follow their path as more and more Western approaches and ideas are implemented within the educational system.  The Buddhist emphasis on the individual and the traditional acceptance of a hierarchical social structure might well come in conflict with our Western intellectual curiosity and social mobility.  This system may become out of touch with the rural population as the educational system that services it strays from its traditional roots.  The Thai response "maj pen raj" (it doesn't matter) may no longer be sufficient when dealing with the new realities of civic education within its society.


References

Baker, Frederick J. (1984). "Educational Radio in Northeast Thailand: Community Development and Station 909". International Education. 13,2 (Spring).

Baker, Frederick J. (1990) "Distance Teaching in Thailand: Teacher Education Comes of Age". Phi Beta Delta International Review. Arlington: University of Texas.

Benedict, Ruth. (1963). Thai Culture and Behavior. An Unpublished War Time Study Dated September, 1943. Data Paper: Number 4. Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.

Bunnag, Tej. (1970). "From Monastery to University Education in Thailand: A Century of Experience." Dept. of Elementary and Adult Education. Ministry of Education. Bangkok: Karnsosana Press.

Cummings, William and Gopinathan, S. (1988). The Revival of Values Education in Asia and the West. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Department of Teacher Education. (1985). Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan. Bangkok: Ministry of Education Press.

de Young, John E. (1963). Village Life in Modern Thailand. Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press.

Ministry of Education. (1978). Elementary School Curriculum, BE 2521 (AD1978). Bangkok: Ministry of Education Press.

Ministry of Education. (1972). Third National Development Plan (1972-76). Bangkok: Ministry of Education Press.

Ministry of Education. (1959). Som-bad Khon Phuuu Dii. (pamphlet) Bangkok.

Mosel, James N. (1957). "Thai Administrative Behavior." Toward the Comparative Study of Public Administration. (Ed) W.J. Siffin. Blomington: Indiana Univ.

Mosel, James N. (1963). "Transitional Thailand: Communication Patterns and Political Socialization." Communication and Political Development. (Ed) Lucian Pye. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press.

National Education Commission. (1977). National Education Charter. Bangkok.

National Economic and Social Development Board. (1981). The Fifth Economic and Social Development Plan, B.E. 2525-2529. Bangkok.

Philips, Herbert P. (1965). Thai Peasant Personality. Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press.

Pramoj, M.R. Khukrit. (1952). Pan-haa Pra-cam-wan. Bangkok.

Sharp, More, Vella and Walter. (1956). Handbook on Thailand. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.

Trirabutana, Prajuab. (1958). The Simple One: The Story of a Siamese Girlhood. Data Paper No. 30, 1958. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.

UNESCO. (1984). Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and The Pacific. Bangkok: UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

Watson, Keith. (1980). Educational Development in Thailand. HongKong: Heinemann Asia.

Wilson, David A. (1962). Politics in Thailand. New York: Cornell Univ. Press.

Young, Stephen B. (1966). The Northeastern village: A Non-Participatory Democracy. Bangkok.

References

(for all information above)


The following list my writing since leaving the Peace Corps:

Grants Written:

"Retraining of Micronesian Teachers in a Local Training Complex," U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. June 1976 (Teacher Corps). This grant was funded for $295,595.00.

"Community College of Micronesia Program for Institutional Development," (with Robert Zuniga) U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. September 1976. (Title III, Basic Institutional Development Program).

"A Training Complex Approach for the Preparation of Educational and Community Personnel in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands," U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. December 1976 (Teacher Corps).

"A Proposal for the Use of Microcomputers to Address Specialized Needs for Education of the Handicapped and the Disadvantaged," Tandy Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas, December, 1982.

"A Collaborative California Mathematics Project Proposal," California Mathematics Project Advisory Committee, Long Beach, California, January, 1983.

"University Linkage Program for East Asia and the Pacific: UCI and Ramkamheng University," United States Information Agency, Washington, D.C. April, 1983.

"University Linkage Program for East Asia and the Pacific: UCI and the Community College of Micronesia," United States Information Agency, Washington, D.C. April, 1983.

"International Open Higher Education and Communication in Northeast Thailand," Asia Foundation, August 1984, funded for $1,100.00.

"Integrating Cultural Diversity Materials into Teacher Education Curriculum, Secondary Level," (with Huberto Molina) University of California, Irvine, Committee for Instructional Development, February 1985, funded for $1,300.00.

"Integrating Cultural Diversity Materials into Teacher Education Curriculum, Elementary Level," (with Huberto Molina) University of California, Irvine, Committee for Instructional Development, April, 1985, funded for $1050.00.

"California International Studies Project-Resource Center," (with the California State University, Long Beach Foundation, October, 1986, funded for $80,000 through 1988.

"International Education Project," (through Cal Poly Pomona's International Center) submitted to Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program, U.S. Department of Education for $115,337, November, 1988.

Edna McConnell Clark Foundation of New York grant through California State Department of Education to attend Stanford University Middle Grades Symposium , July, 1989.

"U.S. Peace Corps Recruitment Program Grant," United States Peace Corps, Washington, D.C. ( to establish a Peace Corps Liaison Office on the Cal Poly Pomona campus). Funded for $9,999.00, October, 1991.

"Establishment of a Los Angeles County High School for International Education," Planning Grant through the California State Department of Education, (Baker, Hartman and Bell). Funded for $48,068.50, July, 1992.

"U.S. Peace Corps Recruitment Program Grant," United States Peace Corps, Washington D.C. Funded for $10,410.00, July, 1992.

"Growth Through Service," Cal Serve Grant, National and Community Service Act, State of California, Bennie, Baker, et al. $52,600, October, 1992.

"U.S. Peace Corps Recruitment Program Grant," United States Peace Corps, Washington D.C. Funded for $10,400, July, 1993.

"Laos Peoples Democratic Republic Curriculum Development Project for Teacher Education," TA 1570, Asian Development Bank. I received a one-year contract for $115,610 in Vientiane, Lao P.D.R. as Team Leader and Head Consultant in Teacher Education from July, 1993 through June, 1994.

"U.S. Peace Corps Recruitment Program Grant," United States Peace Corps, Washington D.C. Funded for $11,720.00, August, 1994.

"United States Information Agency Educational Development Grant," USIA, Washington D.C. for $6034.00, September 1995. This grant funded a two-week consultancy to help the University of Latvia establish a North American Studies Center.

"Malaysia Polytechnic Development Project," World Bank/Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities/Purdue University. I received a one-year contract for $131,000 in Batu Pahat, Malaysia as a consultant to help deliver a MA program for Malaysian polytechnic lecturers from May, 1997 through May, 1998.

"Pedagogy Into Practice: Malaysian Interns' Experiences During Their Teaching Practicum, " Baker, Mohd.Izam, B. Ghazali, Hj. Sapon B. Ibrahim, Giacchino-Bake. I received $RM 20,000 from the University of Technology, Malaysia to conduct this research study.

"Organizational Capacity Assessment," Ministry of Education, Georgetown, Guyana. I received a $22,000 contract from the Inter-American Development Bank through the Consortium for International Development to serve as the Educational Policy and Budget consultant, responsible for analyzing their Ministry of Education.

"Teacher Leadership and School Change," $738,920.00 grant submitted to the Comprehensive Program Fund for the Improvement of Post Secondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. May, 2000.

"Yemen Community Colleges," World Bank contract, Sana'a, Yemen. I received a $10,000 one-month contract from the World Bank through the Consortium for International Development (administered by New Mexico State University) to deliver an intensive course in planning, teaching, and evaluation for 32 Yemeni community college instructors.


Articles Published:

Baker, Frederick J. "A Chance for Change," Michigan Association For Supervision and Curriculum Development Newsletter, Volume 20, Number 4, March, 1973.

Baker, Frederick J. and Arch, Thomas. "Process and Teacher Education, " Michigan Association For Supervision and Curriculum Development Newsletter, Volume 21, Number 4, March 1974.

Baker, Frederick J. and Arch, Thomas. "Let's Make Teacher Education a Good Thing Again," New Directions in Teaching, Volume 4, Number 4, January 1975.


Baker, Frederick J. "Alternative Student Teaching Programs Overseas: Belize, Please!" Michigan Association of Teacher Educators Journal, Spring, 1975.

Baker, Frederick J. "Teacher Training Micronesia Style," The Teacher Educator, Volume 12, Number 2, Autumn 1976.

Baker, Frederick J., et al. "An Assessment of Needs for In-service Educators on the Island of Ponape," Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, Yellow Springs, October 1976.

Baker, Frederick J., et al. "Community Needs Assessment for Ponape District, Trust Territory of the Pacific," Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, Yellow Springs, December 1976.

Baker, Frederick J. "Organizing and Directing Alternative Field Experience Programs. The CMU Project: Student Teaching in England," ATE Bulletin, Experimental Field Experience Programs, January 1977.

Baker, Frederick J. "The Teacher Corps Ponape Project: A Micronesian Model for Teacher Education," Micronesian Reporter, Volume XXV, Number 1, First Quarter 1977.

Baker, Frederick J. "Options and Alternatives in Teacher Education: The Difference Between Measles and Whooping Cough, "Midwest Education Review, Volume 10, Number 4, Summer 1978.

Baker, Frederick J. "Teacher Corps Goes International: The Micronesia/Ponape Experience," International Education, Volume VIII, Number 1, Fall 1978.

The previous article also appears in Resources in Education, ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, SP 011817, ED 147263, 1978.

Baker, Frederick J. "International Student Teaching: Boon or Boondoggle?" Focus, (Journal of the Michigan Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) November 1979.

Baker, Frederick J. "From One Outside Looking In," Foreword to On This Day, by Elaine Haglund, Libraries Unlimited, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, 1983.

Baker, Frederick J. "Alternative Sites for Student Teaching: A How-To-Do-It- List for Successful Involvement," Education, Winter, Volume 104, Number 2, 1983.

Baker, Frederick J. "What Ever Happened to Field-Based Teacher Educators?" Teacher Education Quarterly, Volume 10, Number 3, Summer 1983.

Baker, Frederick J. "Educational Radio in Northeast Thailand: Community Development and Station 909," International Education, Volume XIII, Number 2, Spring 1984.

Baker, Frederick J. "A 'Valu-able' Special Education In-service Model: The Development of Teacher Maturity," Canadian Journal For Exceptional Children, Vol.1, Issue No. 1, Fall, 1984.

Baker, Frederick J. "Alternative Student Teaching: Boon or Boondoggle?" The ClearingHouse, Winter, 1984.

Baker, Frederick J. "The Development of Experiential Learning Programs for the Open University," in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Open Higher Education, Bangkok, August, 1984.

Baker, Frederick J. "The Development of Experiential Learning Programs for the Open University: A Model for Ramkhamhaeng University," Ramkhamhaeng University Journal, 10th Anniversary Issue, Spring 1985.

Baker, Frederick J. "Education for the Future," (monograph) published by Chulalongkorn University Press, Bangkok, September 1985.

Baker, Frederick J., West, B., et al. "The State of the Profession: International Field/Student Teaching Experiences in Undergraduate Teacher Preparation," Guidelines for International Teacher Education, AACTE, March, 1985.

Baker, Frederick J. "In-Service Development Programs for Thai Teachers," ASEAN Publications, Sukothai Thammathirat University, February 1986.

Baker, Frederick J. "Understanding the Quality of Life Through Population Education: a Thai Modular Approach," Ministry of Education Publications, Supervisory Unit, Bangkok 1986.

Baker, Frederick J. "Work-Oriented, Non-Formal, Career Education: Call It What You Like- It's Working," Ministry of Education, Supervisory Unit, Bangkok, 1986.

Baker, Frederick J. "Establishing Centers for the Promotion of Learning and Instruction in Support of Work-Oriented Education: a Thailand Experience," Ministry of Education Publications, Supervisory Unit, Bangkok 1986.

Baker, Frederick J. "Meet Dr. Frederick J. Baker," (interview) Future Magazine, Vol. 6, No.1, June 1986.

Baker, Frederick J. "Distance Teaching in Thailand: Teacher Education Comes of Age," Reviewed in Education in Asia and the Pacific (UNESCO), Number 23, September 1986.

Baker, Frederick J. "How Can You Have Experiential Learning Without Experiential Teaching?" Teacher Education Quarterly, Summer 1989,

Baker, Frederick J. "Distance Teaching in Thailand: Teacher Education Comes of Age," Phi Beta Delta International Review (Journal of the Honor Society for International Scholars), Volume I, January 1990.

An expanded version of the above article also appeared in the Lock Haven International Review, Issue 4, Autumn, 1990.

Baker, Frederick J. "Thai Moral Development and its Relationship to Informal and Formal Education: A Beginning," The Cal Poly Scholar, Volume 3, Fall 1990.

Baker, Frederick J. "The University and Middle School Education: Wherefore Art Thou?" Newsletter of the California League of Middle Schools, Volume 10, No.1, Sept. 1990.

The above article also appeared in the School of Education Newsletter, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Volume V, Summer/Fall, 1990.

Baker, Frederick J. "Internationalizing Public Education: Past Practices, Present Programs, and Future Promises," Resources in Education, ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies, Social Science Education, May 1991.

Baker, Frederick J. "Educational Trouble in Paradise: Micronesian Multicultural Perspectives," The Cal Poly Scholar, Volume 4, Fall, 1991.

Baker, Frederick J. "Alternatives in Teacher Education: How Real Are They?" School of Education Newsletter, California Polytechnic University, Pomona, Volume VI, Fall, 1992.

Baker, Frederick J. "Internationalizing Public Education: Past Practices, Present Programs, and Future Promises," The Cal Poly Scholar, Volume 5, Fall 1992.

Baker. Frederick J. "A Radical Evaluation of American Education: Pap, Poets, and Politics," The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 6, Fall 1993.

Baker, Frederick J. "Teacher Education in the Land of a Million Elephants," The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 7, Fall 1994.

Baker, Frederick J. "A Philosophy of Teacher Education For the Lao People's Democratic Republic: History, Reality, and New Directions," Philosophy of Education Proceedings, Far Western Philosophical Society, Alberta, Canada, 1994.

Baker, Frederick J. and Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie. "Immigration and Its Effect on the Signs of Our Times," Journal of the Institute for Regional and International Studies, Issue 2, Summer 1995.

Baker, Frederick J. and Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie. "Institutional Response of U.S. Colleges and Universities to the Linguistic and Cultural Needs of Foreign Students," The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 8, 1995.

Baker, Frederick J. "From Laos to Latvia via North American Studies," Journal of the Institute for Regional and International Studies, Issue 3, Winter, 1996.

Baker, Frederick J. and Mendelsohn, Jere. "Reform or Newform? The Future of Public Education Through the Eyes of an International Polytechnic High School," The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 9, Fall 1996.

Baker, Frederick J. and Mendelsohn, Jere. "Internationalizing Education Through Pacific Rim Eyes: The I-Poly Approach," Context: Southeast Asians & Other Newcomers in California's Classrooms, November/December, 1996, Volume 17, No. 124.

Baker, Frederick J. "Internationalizing Public Education," International Newsletter, International Student Services, California State University, San Bernardino, Vol.1., Issue 17. January 1997.

Baker, Frederick J., "Dynamics of Teaching in a Pluralistic Society," Multicultural Prism: Voices From the Field, Volume 3, J.Q. Adams and Janice R. Welsch, Editors. Illinois Staff and Curriculum Developers Association, 1997.

Baker, Frederick J. " A Systemic Model for Transforming Schools of Education at the Higher Education Level," Academic Journal, Institut Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn, University Teknologi, Malaysia, December, 1997.

Baker, Frederick J., and Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie. "Malaysian Diary," Journal of the Institute for Regional and International Studies, Issue 6, Summer 1998.

Baker, Frederick J. "Ways of Coexisting," CD-Rom, Multicultural Prism: Diversity in the Curriculum, Western Illinois University, June, 1999.

Baker, Frederick J., "Multicultural Versus Global Education: Why Not Two Sides of the Same Coin?" The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 12, Fall, 1999.

Baker, Frederick J. "Researching Pedagogy into Practice: A Look at Malaysian Interns' Responses Regarding Educational Psychology During M.A. Studies," Journal of the Institute for Regional and International Studies, Issue 7, Summer 1999.

Baker, Frederick J., and Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie. "Expanding the Boundaries of Education Through International Student Teaching: From California to Mexico." The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 13, Fall, 2000.

Baker, Frederick J. "The Beginnings of Educational Reform in South America: A Guyana Experience." Global Cal Poly Pomona (Journal of the International Center and Cal Poly Pomona Faculty, Issue 8, Fall, 2000.

Books, Book Chapters, Modules, Reviews, etc.

The following Individualized/Performance Based Learning Modules were co-authored with Douglas Shult of the Far West Laboratory, San Francisco and published by the Union For Experimenting Colleges and Universities, Yellow Springs, Ohio. They are now part of the degree program of the Community College of Micronesia's Elementary Education In-service Degree and have been disseminated throughout the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (now the Federated States of Micronesia).


"Project for the Development of a Teacher Aide Program," May 1975 "Module for the Development of a Ponape Directory of Learning Resources," May 1976. "English Language Improvement," June 1976. "Basic Interaction Analysis with Emphasis on Cross-Cultural Situations," June 1976. "Evaluation for Instruction in the Multicultural Classroom," July 1976. "Lesson Planning for Multicultural Classrooms," August 1976. "Mathematics Improvement I and II," August 1976.

Baker, Frederick J. and Enos, Donald. PONAPE DIRECTORY OF LEARNING RESOURCES, Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, 1977, 179 pages. This book was reviewed in the ISLANDER section of the Pacific Daily News, February 20, 1977.

Baker, Frederick J., "An Interview with Fred Baker: A College Teacher Educator with a School-Focused Role," is a chapter in SCHOOL-FOCUSED INSERVICE: DESCRIPTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS, by Howey, Bents and Corrigan, ATE, Reston, Virginia, 1981.

Baker, Frederick J., (with Wolfe and Kromer) "A Discussion of Issues Relating to School Focused Teacher," is a chapter in SCHOOL-FOCUSED INSERVICE: DESCRIPTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS, by Howey, Bents and Corrigan, ATE, Reston, Virginia, 1981.

Baker, Frederick J., STUDENT TEACHING HANDBOOK, Office of Teacher Education, University of California, Irvine, 1982.

Baker, Frederick J., "Distance Learning in Technical Education," (handbook) published by the Institute for Technical Education Development, King Mongkut Institute of Technology, North Bangkok Campus, October 1985.

Baker, Frederick J., (editor and consultant translator) POPULATION EDUCATION: THE QUALITY OF LIFE, (six volume edition), Ministry of Education, Supervisory Unit, Bangkok, 1986.

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed Myers SCHOOLS AND TEACHING IN AMERICA TODAY, for Holt, Rinehart and Winston, June, 1988.

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed Reed and Bergemann's POINT-COUNTERPOINT: AN INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION, for Holt, Rinehart and Winston, August, 1989.

Baker, Frederick J., "Global Education: The Future is Now," is a chapter appearing in REFORMING TEACHER EDUCATION: ISSUES AND DIRECTIONS, edited by Joseph Braun and published by Gardlands of New York, Fall 1989.

Editor, TRANSPERSONAL/HUMANISTIC EDUCATION NEWSLETTER, Association of Teacher Education, 1992-1993.

Baker, Frederick J., EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, (in Lao) Ministry of Education, Department of Teacher Education, Lao, Peoples Democratic Republic, 1994 (ADB TA: 1570).

Baker, Frederick J., METHODS OF TEACHING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS (in Lao), Ministry of Education, Department of Teacher Education, Lao, Peoples Democratic Republic, 1994, (ADB TA: 1570).

Baker, Frederick J., CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (in Lao), Ministry of Education, Department of Teacher Education, Lao, Peoples Democratic Republic, 1994, (ADB TA: 1570).

Baker, Frederick J., STUDENT TEACHING MANUAL: BILINGUAL LAO/ENGLISH EDITION, Ministry of Education, Department of Teacher Education, Lao, Peoples Democratic Republic, 1994, (ADB TA: 1570).

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed MULTIETHNIC EDUCATION: RAISING THE LEVEL OF SELF-ESTEEM IN ETHNIC MINORITY STUDENTS, for Brown and Benchmark Publishers, August, 1995.

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION/FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION, for West Educational Publishing, September, 1995.

Baker, Frederick J., and Rubenstein, D., DEPARTMENT OF TEACHER EDUCATION HANDBOOK, School of Education and Integrative Studies, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 1996.

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed Pai and Adler's CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION, SECOND EDITION, for Prentice Hall, 1996.

Baker, Frederick J., "Ways of Coexisting: Urban and Global Communities," (book chapter) appearing in Adams & Welsch, Editors, MULTICULTURAL PRISM: VOICES FROM THE FIELD, Western Illinois University, 1996.

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed Hlebowitsh and Tellez's AMERICAN EDUCATION: PURPOSE AND PROMISE, for Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997.

Baker, Frederick J., and Mendelsohn, Jere, REFORMING AMERICA'S SCHOOLS: FROM TEACHERS AND CURRICULUM TO GLOBALIZATION AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-7872-3952-6, 248 pages.

Baker, Frederick J., WAYS OF COEXISTING: URBAN, SUBURBAN, AND GLOBAL COMMUNITIES (Ed.), Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-7872-3887-2, 260 pages.

Baker, Frederick J., reviewed Spring's DECULTURALIZATION AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1999.

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