Health care and safety in Senegal

From Peace Corps Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search


Health care and safety in [[{{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer and trainee. Medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative approach to disease.

Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk.

  • [[Packing list for {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Training in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Living conditions and volunteer lifestyles in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Health care and safety in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Diversity and cross-cultural issues in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[FAQs about Peace Corps in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[History of the Peace Corps in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
|6}} [[Image:Flag_of_{{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}}.svg|50px|none]]}}

See also:
Pre-Departure Checklist
Staging Timeline
The Health of the Volunteer The Safety of the Volunteer




Health care and safety in [[{{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer and trainee. Medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative approach to disease.

Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk.

  • [[Packing list for {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Training in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Living conditions and volunteer lifestyles in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Health care and safety in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[Diversity and cross-cultural issues in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[FAQs about Peace Corps in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
  • [[History of the Peace Corps in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |7}}]]
|6}} [[Image:Flag_of_{{#explode:Health care and safety in Senegal| |5}}.svg|50px|none]]}}

See also:
Pre-Departure Checklist
Staging Timeline
The Health of the Volunteer The Safety of the Volunteer


The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Senegal maintains a clinic with three full-time medical officers, who take care of Volunteers’ primary health care needs. Additional medical services, such as testing and basic treatment, are also available in Senegal at local hospitals. If you become seriously ill, you will be transported either to an American medical facility in the region or to the United States.

Health Issues in Senegal[edit]

All the running water in Senegal is unsafe to drink, so you should drink only bottled water or brand-name bottled or canned beverages such as Coca-Cola, Fanta, beer, and wine. Ice cubes in restaurants also are not safe, and mixing alcohol with contaminated water will not purify the water. When you travel to small villages where bottled water may not be available, you will need to bring bottled water or chemical additives to purify the local water. Information on methods of water purification will be provided during training. Peeled fruits and vegetables are safe to eat, as are unpeeled fruits and vegetables that have been well cooked. Salads are dangerous, even in good restaurants, since lettuce and other vegetables are frequently washed with contaminated water. Food should be safe to eat if it is freshly prepared, is thoroughly cooked, is served hot, and has not been exposed to possible contamination by flies. All raw seafood should be avoided, and meat should be ordered well done (bien cuit in French).

Helping You Stay Healthy[edit]

The Peace Corps will provide you with all the necessary inoculations, medications, and information to stay healthy. Upon your arrival in Senegal, you will receive a medical handbook. At the end of training you will receive a medical kit with supplies to take care of mild illnesses and first-aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter. During pre-service training, you will have access to basic medical supplies through the medical officer. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as we will not order these items during training. Please bring a six-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive. You will have physicals at midservice and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, a medical officer in Senegal will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Senegal, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care.

Maintaining Your Health[edit]

As a Volunteer, you must accept a certain amount of responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The old adage “An ounce of prevention …” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States. The most important of your responsibilities in Senegal is to take preventive measures for the following:

You will live and work in an area where malaria, a mosquito-borne disease, is prevalent and must take an approved prophylactic medication—mefloquine—once a week during service and for four weeks after you leave the area. Side effects such as lightheadedness, dizziness, gastrointestinal disturbances, and insomnia are not uncommon when first starting mefloquine, but these side effects are generally mild and tend to diminish with continued use of the drug. For a detailed description of malaria prophylaxis, you can review the Peace Corps’ Technical Guideline 840, “Prevention of Malaria,” once you arrive in Senegal.

It is important to know that no single or combined malaria prophylactic regimen is 100 percent effective. Avoidance of mosquito bites is imperative because malaria, if contracted and not treated promptly, can be fatal. A good rule of thumb is to consider any unexplained fever a possible case of malaria. By using bed nets, wearing appropriate clothing, and applying insect repellent to exposed skin, you can greatly reduce your risk of exposure to mosquito bites.

Vaccination against yellow fever is required for entry into Senegal, and the Peace Corps also recommends vaccination against polio, gamma globulin, typhoid, tetanus and diphtheria, and meningococcal meningitis. A Peace Corps medical officer will review these recommendations with you to help you determine the best prophylactic regimen. Required inoculations will be given at the pre-departure orientation. Many illnesses that afflict Volunteers worldwide are entirely preventable if proper food and water precautions are taken. These illnesses include food poisoning, parasitic infections, hepatitis A, dysentery, Guinea worms, tapeworms, and typhoid fever. Your medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Senegal during pre-service training. Abstinence is the only certain choice for prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. You are taking risks if you choose to be sexually active. Whether your partner is Senegalese, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. You will receive more information from a medical officer about this important issue.

Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the medical officer.

It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office or other designated facility for scheduled immunizations, and that you let your medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injuries. Similarly, it is important to involve the medical office as early as possible if you become a victim of physical or sexual assault so you can get the necessary physiological and emotional support. The medical staff can also advise you of the options available for prosecuting an attacker. (The medical office is required make an incident report to Peace Corps headquarters, but it can withhold the identity of the Volunteer if requested to do so.)

Women’s Health Information[edit]

Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions that require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if a pregnant Volunteer remains in-country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met. If feminine hygiene products are not available for you to purchase on the local market, the Peace Corps medical officer in Senegal will provide them. If you require a specific product, please bring a six-month supply with you.

Your Peace Corps Medical Kit[edit]

The Peace Corps medical officer provides Volunteers with a medical kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that might occur during service. Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office.

Medical Kit Contents[edit]

Ace bandages
Adhesive tape
American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook
Antacid tablets (Tums)
Antibiotic ointment (Bacitracin/Neomycin/Polymycin B)
Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens)
Band-Aids
Butterfly closures
Calamine lotion
Cepacol lozenges
Condoms
Dental floss
Diphenhydramine HCL 25 mg (Benadryl)
Insect repellent stick (Cutter’s)
Iodine tablets (for water purification)
Lip balm (Chapstick)
Oral rehydration salts
Oral thermometer (Fahrenheit)
Pseudoephedrine HCL 30 mg (Sudafed)
Robitussin-DM lozenges (for cough)
Scissors
Sterile gauze pads
Tetrahydrozaline eyedrops (Visine)
Tinactin (antifungal cream)
Tweezers

Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist[edit]

If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.

If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.

If you wish to avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office, obtain a copy of your immunization record, and bring it to your pre-departure orientation. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment, either at your pre-departure orientation or shortly after you arrive in Senegal. You do not need to begin taking malaria medication prior to departure.

Bring a six-month supply of any prescription or over-thecounter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this six-month supply, it will order refills during your service. While awaiting shipment—which can take several months— you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescribed medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.

You are encouraged to bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician. This is not a requirement, but they might come in handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a six-month supply of prescription drugs.

If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you—a pair and a spare. If a pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination. We discourage you from using contact lenses during your Peace Corps service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or associated solutions unless an ophthalmologist has recommended their use for a specific medical condition and the Peace Corps’ Office of Medical Services

has given approval.

If you are eligible for Medicare, are over 50 years of age, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in health care plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique coverage needs before your departure. The Peace Corps will provide all necessary health care from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service health care benefits described in the Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.

Safety and Security—Our Partnership[edit]

Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Petty thefts and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems. In addition, more than 83 percent of Volunteers surveyed say they would join the Peace Corps again. The Peace Corps approaches safety and security as a partnership with you. This Welcome Book contains sections on:

Living Conditions and Volunteer Lifestyle; Peace Corps

Training; and Your Health Care and Safety. All of these sections include important safety information. The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest and most secure way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify and manage the risks you may encounter.

Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk[edit]

There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are in the Volunteer’s control. Based on information gathered from incident reports worldwide in 2003, the following factors stand out as risk characteristics for assaults. Assaults consist of personal crimes committed against Volunteers, and do not include property crimes (such as vandalism or theft).

  • Location: Most crimes occurred when Volunteers were in public areas (e.g., street, park, beach, public buildings). Specifically, 47 percent of assaults took place when Volunteers were away from their sites.
  • Time of day: Assaults usually took place on the weekend during the late evening between 10:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m.— most often occurring around 1:00 a.m.
  • Absence of others: More than 75 percent of crime incidents occurred when a Volunteer was unaccompanied.
  • Relationship to assailant: In most assaults, the Volunteer did not know the assailant.
  • Consumption of alcohol: Almost a third of all assaults involved alcohol consumption by Volunteers and/or assailants.

Summary Strategies to Reduce Risk[edit]

Before and during service, your training will address these areas of concern so that you can reduce the risks you face.

For example, here are some strategies Volunteers employ:

Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of theft:

  • Know the environment and choose safe routes/times for travel
  • Avoid high-crime areas per Peace Corps guidance
  • Know the vocabulary to get help in an emergency
  • Carry valuables in different pockets/places
  • Carry a “dummy” wallet as a decoy Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of burglary:
  • Live with a local family or on a family compound
  • Put strong locks on doors and keep valuables in a lock box or trunk
  • Leave irreplaceable objects at home in the U.S.
  • Follow Peace Corps guidelines on maintaining home security


Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of assault:

  • Make local friends
  • Make sure your appearance is respectful of local customs; don’t draw negative attention to yourself by wearing inappropriate clothing
  • Get to know local officials, police, and neighbors
  • Travel with someone whenever possible
  • Avoid known high crime areas
  • Limit alcohol consumption

Support from Staff[edit]

In March 2003, the Peace Corps created the Office of Safety and Security with its mission to “foster improved communication, coordination, oversight, and accountability of all Peace Corps’ safety and security efforts.” The new office is led by anAssociate Director for Safety and Security who reports to the Peace Corps Director and includes the following divisions: Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security; Information and Personnel Security; and Emergency Preparedness, Plans, Training and Exercise. The safety and security team also tracks crime statistics, identifies trends in criminal activity, and highlights potential safety risks to Volunteers.

The major responsibilities of the Volunteer Safety and

Overseas Security Division are to coordinate the office’s overseas operations and direct the Peace Corps’ safety and security officers who are located in various regions around the world that have Peace Corps programs. The safety and security officers conduct security assessments; review safety trainings; train trainers and managers; train Volunteer safety wardens, local guards, and staff; develop security incident response procedures; and provide crisis management support. If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure that the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed.

After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff provides support by reassessing the Volunteer’s work site and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed. In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.

The following country-specific data chart shows the incidence rates and the average number of incidents of the major types of safety incidents reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/trainees in Senegal as compared to all other Africa region programs as a whole, from 1999–2003. It is presented to you in a somewhat technical manner for statistical accuracy.

To fully appreciate the collected data below, an explanation of the graph is provided as follows:

The incidence rate for each type of crime is the number of crime events relative to the Volunteer/trainee population. It is expressed on the chart as a ratio of crime to Volunteer and trainee years (or V/T years, which is a measure of 12 full months of V/T service) to allow for a statistically valid way to compare crime data across countries. An “incident” is a specific offense, per Peace Corps’ classification of offenses, and may involve one or more Volunteer/trainee victims. For example, if two Volunteers are robbed at the same time and place, this is classified as one robbery incident. The chart is separated into the eight most commonly occurring assault types. These include vandalism (malicious defacement or damage of property); theft (taking without force or illegal entry); burglary (forcible entry of a residence); robbery (taking something by force); minor physical assault (attacking without a weapon with minor injuries); minor sexual assault (fondling, groping, etc.); aggravated assault (attacking with a weapon, and/or without a weapon when serious injury results); and rape (sexual intercourse without consent).

When anticipating Peace Corps Volunteer service, you should review all of the safety and security information provided to you, including the strategies to reduce risk. Throughout your training and Volunteer service, you will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas including safety and security. Once in-country, use the tools and information shared with you to remain as safe and secure as possible.

Security Issues in Senegal[edit]

When it comes to your safety and security in the Peace Corps, you have to be willing to adapt your behavior and lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target of crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Senegal. You can reduce your risk by taking precautions and avoiding situations that make you feel uncomfortable. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in the large cities; people know each other and generally will not steal from their neighbors. Tourist attractions in large towns, for instance, are favorite work sites for pickpockets. The following are safety concerns in Senegal you should be aware of: Petty theft, pickpocketing, and assaults on the general population have become a very serious problem in Senegal. Similarly, there has been a significant increase in these crimes against both female and male Volunteers in Senegal. The Peace Corps therefore recommends that Volunteers not walk alone at night or go to bars and nightclubs alone.

Staying Safe: Don’t Be a Target for Crime[edit]

You must be prepared to take on a large degree of responsibility for your own safety. Only you can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your house is secure, and develop relations in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime. In coming to Senegal, do what you would do if you moved to a large city in the United States: Be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Senegal may require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.

Volunteers attract a lot of attention both in large cities and at

their sites, but they are likely to receive more negative attention in highly populated centers than at their sites, where “family,” friends, and colleagues look out for them. While whistles and exclamations are fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, avoid eye contact, and do not respond to unwanted attention. Keep your money out of sight by using an undergarment money pouch, the kind that hangs around your neck and stays hidden under your shirt or inside your coat. Do not keep your money in outside pockets of backpacks, in coat pockets, or in fanny packs.

Preparing for the Unexpected: Safety Training and Volunteer Support in Senegal

The Peace Corps’ approach to safety is a five-pronged plan to help you stay safe during your two-year service and includes the following: information sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed emergency action plan, and protocols for reporting and responding to safety and security incidents. Senegal’s in-country safety program is outlined below. Information sharing—The Peace Corps/Senegal office will keep Volunteers informed of any issues that may impact Volunteer safety. Regular updates will be provided in Volunteer newsletters or in memorandums from the country director. In the event of a critical situation or emergency, Volunteers will be contacted through the emergency communication network.

Training will include sessions to prepare you for specific safety and security issues in Senegal. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risk in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout service and is integrated into the language, cross-cultural, health, and other components of training.

Certain site selection criteria are used to determine safe housing for Volunteers before their arrival. The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to help prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to establish expectations of their respective roles in supporting the Volunteer. Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure housing and work sites. Site selection criteria are based in part on any relevant site history; access to medical, banking, postal, and other essential services; availability of communications, transportation, and markets; different housing options and living arrangements; and other support needs.

You will also learn about Peace Corps/Senegal’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of civil or political unrest or a natural disaster. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house and places of work. If there is a security threat, Volunteers in Senegal will gather at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.

Finally, in order to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps medical officer. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.