Difference between pages "Living conditions and volunteer lifestyles in Niger" and "Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania"

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In fulfilling the Peace Corps’ mandate to share the face of America with our host countries, we are making special efforts to see that all of America’s richness is reflected in the Volunteer corps. More Americans of color are serving in today’s Peace Corps than at any time in recent years.  Differences in race, ethnic background, age, religion, and sexual orientation are expected and welcomed among our Volunteers. Part of the Peace Corps’ mission is to help dispel any notion that Americans are all of one origin or race and to establish that each of us is as thoroughly American as the other despite our many differences.
  
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Our diversity helps us accomplish that goal. In other ways, however, it poses challenges. In Romania, as in other Peace Corps host countries, Volunteers’ behavior, lifestyle, background, and beliefs are judged in a cultural context very different from their own. Certain personal perspectives or characteristics commonly accepted in the United States may be quite uncommon, unacceptable, or even repressed in Romania.
  
===Communications === not ture
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Outside of Romania’s capital and other large cities, people have had relatively little direct exposure to other cultures, races, religions, and lifestyles. What people view as typical American behavior or norms may be a misconception, such as the belief that all Americans are rich and have blond hair and blue eyes. The people of Romania are justly known for their generous hospitality to foreigners; however, members of the community in which you will live may display a range of reactions to cultural differences that you present.
  
===Mail ===
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To ease the transition and adapt to life in Romania, you may need to make some temporary, yet fundamental compromises in how you present yourself as an American and as an individual. For example, female trainees and Volunteers may not be able to exercise the independence available to them in the United States; political discussions need to be handled with great care; and some of your personal beliefs may best remain undisclosed. You will need to develop techniques and personal strategies for coping with these and other limitations.  The Peace Corps staff will lead diversity and sensitivity discussions during pre-service training and will be on call to provide support, but the challenge ultimately will be your own.
  
Few countries in the world offer the level of mail service considered normal in the United States. If you expect U.S.  standards for mail service, you will be in for some frustration.  Some mail may simply not arrive (fortunately, this is not a frequent occurrence, but it does happen).
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===Overview of Diversity in Romania ===
  
Mail service in Niger is relatively good compared with that in other African countries. Letters and packages mailed from the United States by air (or from Niger to America) usually take two to six weeks to arrive. Packages mailed by surface typically take six months or more, so this method is not recommended. Note that incoming packages are subject to customs duties (generally small).  
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The Peace Corps staff in Romania recognizes adjustment issues that come with diversity and will endeavor to provide support and guidance. During pre-service training, several sessions will be held to discuss diversity and coping mechanisms. We look forward to having male and female Volunteers from a variety of races, ethnic groups, ages, religions, and sexual orientations, and hope that you will become part of a diverse group of Americans who take pride in supporting one another and demonstrating the richness of American culture.  
  
Despite the delays, we strongly encourage you to write to your family regularly and to number your letters. Family members typically become worried when they do not hear from you, so it is a good idea to advise them that mail is sporadic and that they should not worry if they do not receive your letters regularly. You might also suggest that family and friends number their letters for tracking purposes and write “Airmail” and “Par Avion” on the envelopes. You should bring a supply of U.S. stamps for sending mail to the United States via travelers. DHL service is available in Niger, and though it is very expensive, this is the best way to mail valuable or time-sensitive items such as airplane tickets.
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===What Might a Volunteer Face? ===
  
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====Possible Issues for Female Volunteers ====
  
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As with other social matters, there are large differences in attitudes toward gender between smaller and bigger communities and between the older and younger generations.
  
Your mailing address in Niger will be:
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Stereotypes concerning behavior toward women that exist in southern European cultures can be applied to Romanians as well. By tradition, women are expected to be able to cook and look after the needs of their husbands and children while having their own jobs. On the other hand, men are expected to open doors for women, to offer them seats on public transportation, and to kiss women’s hands when being introduced to them. At work, female Volunteers may feel that their skills are questioned in the predominantly male environment. Many Romanian men will intervene if a woman is performing a task that is considered difficult or demeaning. It is considered masculine to help a woman who seems confused by a minor mechanical or equipment-related problem. In addition, women may be honked at by drivers or yelled at by groups of young men in the streets. In such situations, it is generally best to continue walking and try not to get involved in any conversation.
  
Name of Trainee/Volunteer
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====Possible Issues for Volunteers of Color ====
  
Corps de la Paix
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There are relatively few people of color in Romania. Most of them are African students and immigrants who live in Bucharest and a few other large cities. Even though there is no history of institutionalized discrimination or hatred directed at black people, African-American Volunteers may hear offensive remarks by younger people who have seen instances of racism in Western movies and think it is acceptable to act in a similar manner. Someone may utter an offensive term because he or she is not aware of the acceptable term in English and not because the person really means to be offensive.
  
B.P. 10537
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Hispanic American Volunteers may encounter preferential treatment from some Romanians, many of whom are very proud of, and even defensive about, their Latin origins and view Hispanic Americans as kin. Romania has a small community of Asians, many of whom work in business. As a result of news stories about business irregularities in the past years, Asian Americans may be looked at with suspicion. The most common behavior that they encounter is being called “Chinese” or “Japanese” for no reason. Young people may irritate you by demanding that you demonstrate the martial arts skills that Asian Americans supposedly have. Residents of smaller communities may find it difficult to understand that a Volunteer is American, and may ask you when you immigrated to the United States.  
  
Niamey, Niger
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====Possible Issues for Senior Volunteers ====
  
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Seniors receive great respect in Romanian culture. In Romanian folklore, the hero often seeks the counsel of the wise old man or woman. There are situations in which senior Volunteers will find themselves challenged, however. A senior who teaches English in a high school may face some disappointment from counterparts and students who wanted a younger teacher. It may take a little time for them to see that age does not have anything to do with a Volunteer’s energy and eagerness.
  
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Older people in Romania generally are less active than seniors in the United States. A senior Volunteer’s Romanian friends might assume that the Volunteer does not want to socialize that much and that he or she would rather stay home and watch television. They may fail to include senior Volunteers in some of their social activities. Another stereotype about older Volunteers is that they have old-fashioned ideas and are not able to adapt to new trends.
  
===Telephones ===
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====Possible Issues for Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Volunteers ====
  
Cellphone service is becoming increasingly more available throughout the country; many Volunteer villages have cellphone coverage, however, your relatives and friends should be prepared for significant changes in the regularity, reliability, and speed of communication you currently enjoy.  
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Laws that discriminated against sexual minorities recently have been changed, but Romania still has a rather homophobic culture. The younger generation in large cities tends to be more accepting, having been exposed to Western culture through films, documentaries, and even gay people’s visibility. The gay scene has recently grown, but it is still small, underground, and confined mostly to the largest cities.  In any event, it is advisable to be careful about revealing one’s sexual orientation in the workplace and the community.  
  
===Computers, Internet, and E-mail Access ===
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====Possible Religious Issues for Volunteers ====
  
There are increasing numbers of private telecenters and Internet cafes in larger towns. These generally work well for e-mail, but Internet access is both slow and expensive. Volunteers can access e-mail at the Peace Corps office in Niamey and at regional Peace Corps offices, but not at the training center.  
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More than 85 percent of the population is Eastern (Romanian) Orthodox, with less than 5 percent Roman Catholic, 4 percent Protestant, 0.3 percent Muslim, and 0.2 percent Jewish. The Romanian Orthodox Church is hierarchical, dogmatic, and fairly well-to-do. New churches are being built even in poor villages to accommodate the growing membership. You may be asked about your religious affiliation and invited to attend an Orthodox church, but not likely in a pushy manner. It is possible to politely decline if the church or religious practice is not one of your choice. If you want to attend a church other than a Romanian Orthodox one, your options may be limited, especially in smaller towns and rural areas.  
  
===Housing and Site Location ===
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====Possible Issues for Volunteers With Disabilities ====
  
Most agriculture, environment, and community health Volunteers live in villages of 200 to 1,000 people within a few miles of other Volunteers and roads served by public transportation. You may be anywhere from 60 to 750 miles (100 to 1,200 kilometers) from Niamey. You are likely to be one of only a handful of people—perhaps the only person—in the village with anything beyond the equivalent of a sixth-grade education. Many sites have a rural health clinic or a primary school, but some do not. Housing is provided by each village and consists of a traditional one- or two-room house of adobe brick with an adobe or thatch roof. Most Volunteer houses have a small yard surrounded by an adobe or thatch enclosure. The Peace Corps pays for the cementing of the floor of your house and bath/toilet area and provides screens for doors and windows.  
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As a disabled Volunteer in Romania, you may find that you face a special set of challenges. As in other parts of the world, some people may hold prejudicial attitudes toward people with disabilities, who are often institutionalized or kept out of public view in Romania. In addition, there is very little infrastructure to accommodate people with disabilities.  
  
There will be no running water or electricity. You will obtain your water from a well and rely on a kerosene lamp or candles for light in the evening. Most of the year, you will sleep outside, with only a mosquito net, which the Peace Corps provides, between you and the stars. You will become adept at using a squat latrine and taking a bucket bath—pouring water over yourself from a bucket. Although it may sound like a two-year camping trip (and in some ways it is), your site will become your home. With time, you will find ways to make yourself comfortable, and soon enough, you will forget how strange some of these conditions once seemed.  
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As part of the medical clearance process, the Peace Corps Office of Medical Services determined that you were physically and emotionally capable of performing a full tour of Volunteer service in Romania without unreasonable risk of harm to yourself or interruption of your service. The Peace Corps/Romania staff will work with disabled Volunteers to make reasonable accommodations for them in training, housing, job sites, or other areas to enable them to serve safely and effectively.  
  
Education Volunteers are posted in small towns of 10,000 to 100,000 people, located near clusters of rural-based Volunteers. Housing consists of a small mud brick or cement house or an apartment provided by the government of Niger.  The towns have the education infrastructure and partners you will need in your assignment. Some of the towns have Peace Corps regional offices, headed by a Volunteer regional representative. There may also be Volunteers working with international and nongovernmental organizations such as UNICEF and CARE. Most of these sites are on the main road that crosses the country from east to west.
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====Possible Issues for Married Volunteers ====
  
Although running water and electricity are available in most towns, there may be limited hours of electricity use and frequent power failures.  
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Married couples may face challenges in their relationships with Romanians resulting from gender role expectations specific to the Latin and male-centered culture. A Volunteer wife may be questioned—directly or as a source of gossip among older Romanian women—as to whether she is taking proper care of her husband, whether she can cook and preserve vegetables for the winter, and whether she spends too much time with other men. The independence demonstrated by the members of an American couple may be perceived as immoral. The wife may be expected to perform all the domestic chores, while the husband may be expected to assume an overtly dominant role in the household. Some Romanian men’s respect for a married male Volunteer may decrease if they learn that he performs domestic tasks.  In some instances, a husband may be expected to make a decision without consulting his wife. Yet because of women’s increasing social and professional visibility, perceptions of gender roles in marriage have been changing toward a more Western way of thinking, at least in larger towns and cities.  
  
===Living Allowance and Money Management ===
 
  
As a Volunteer in Niger, you will receive four types of allowances. The first is a living allowance to cover your basic living expenses. This allowance is reviewed at least once a year through a survey of Volunteer expenses to ensure that it is adequate. The living allowance is paid in local currency (CFA francs) and is intended to cover the cost of food, utilities, household supplies, clothing, recreation and entertainment, transportation, reading materials, and other incidentals. Volunteers typically find that this allowance is more than adequate for maintaining their health and wellbeing, and you are therefore discouraged from supplementing the allowance with money from home. You will find that you receive more remuneration than your Nigerien counterpart or supervisor.
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[[Category:Romania]]
 
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You will also receive a vacation allowance of $24 per month, paid quarterly in CFA francs along with your living allowance.  After you are sworn-in as a Volunteer, you will receive a onetime settling-in allowance to purchase items you need to set up your house, such as a bed, pots, and dishes. The Peace Corps will supply you with a tabletop gas stove for cooking, a mosquito net, a water filter, a basic medical kit, and a bicycle and helmet.
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If the Peace Corps requires you to travel, you will also be given additional money for transportation and meals. This amount is established by the administrative officer based on the actual cost of transportation and lodging.
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Although most Volunteers find they can live comfortably in Niger with these four allowances, many Volunteers bring money (in U.S. traveler’s checks) or credit cards for out-of-country travel. You are strongly discouraged from supplementing your income with money from home. The living allowance is adequate, and it is important for Peace Corps Volunteers to live at the economic level of their neighbors and colleagues.
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Retail stores in Niger do not accept credit cards. For safekeeping, you can store money, passports, and other valuables in the Peace Corps office safe in Niamey.
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===Food and Diet ===
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Although the local diet is heavy on starches (millet, sorghum, and rice), Volunteers use creativity, home gardens, and provisions from stores in larger towns to maintain an adequately diverse diet. The limited supply of fresh fruit and vegetables and their extreme seasonality make it difficult to maintain a strict vegetarian diet. During the hot season, it is often difficult to find fresh vegetables in villages. Nonetheless, there are Volunteers who are strict vegetarians and who remain healthy by making an extra effort to ensure adequate nutrition. Others become meat eaters during their service in Niger. Meat is sometimes difficult to find in villages, but it is always available in larger towns. Bread is available in towns and larger villages, and there are small stores where you can usually find imported foods such as pasta, tuna, cornflakes, and so on.
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===Transportation ===
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The villages in which rural-based Volunteers live are typically located within nine or so miles (15 kilometers), usually less, of a road serviced by public transportation. Volunteers must walk or bike from their village to wherever there is regular road traffic. Depending on the region, the available vehicle for which the generic term is “bush taxi” might be anything from a station wagon to a Land Rover to a minibus, varying in age from nearly new (very rare) to older than you are. Vehicles are usually crowded and uncomfortable and are subject to frequent breakdowns. On the two major highways (eastwest and north-south), large buses provide regular service.  Volunteers are often able to hitch rides with Peace Corps staff members, who visit Volunteers frequently, and with vehicles operated by various foreign aid projects.There are also regular monthly shuttles to and from the transit houses by Peace Corps vehicles. In larger towns, taxis are available for local transportation.
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All Volunteers are issued good-quality bicycles and are given training in their maintenance. They are also issued helmets, which are required for riding at all times. If the area is not too sandy, Volunteers often use bicycles for transportation from their villages to regional transit houses or to visit neighboring Volunteers.
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===Geography and Climate ===
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Except for a mountainous area in the northern Sahara, Niger is mostly flat, with some low hills, ridges, and rainy-season riverbeds. The Niger is the only major river. The climate is harsh, ranging from extremely hot (over 120 degrees Fahrenheit and rarely below 90 degrees) in April and May to dry and cool between November and February when the nights are cool enough (as low as 40 degrees in northern areas) to require a blanket and the days cool enough to require warm clothes. Winds off the Sahara sometimes make the air very dusty. The rainy season, from June through late September, is characterized by periods of increasing heat and humidity punctuated by violent, brief downpours. Rain is very unlikely at other times of the year.
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===Social Activities ===
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Nigeriens are very social people, and individuals who are not social may be viewed suspiciously. Hanging out, talking, and laughing are desirable. Even if you do not talk a lot, hanging out quietly with Nigeriens is viewed as being social. Privacy and solitude, on the other hand, are viewed as undesirable by most Nigeriens, and your friends and neighbors will attempt to ensure that you are never alone (except, of course, when going to the latrine, taking a bath, getting dressed, etc.). In many cases, this is because they have never encountered someone of such a different background—they are only trying to be good hosts and friends. But if you establish your personal limits early on, you will find that with time and patience you and your neighbors will reach a comfortable understanding.
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===Professionalism, Dress, and Behavior ===
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Being well dressed with clean clothes is important in Niger.  Though their country is hot, dusty, and poor, Nigeriens take a lot of pride in their personal appearance. It can be insulting, even to people you know well, to wear clothing that is torn, dirty, or too revealing in any setting other than your house or while performing hard physical labor. This is not to imply that you need dress clothes for work. Collared shirts and casual slacks or jeans for men, and blouses and below-the-knee skirts or dresses for women, are acceptable. (Pants for women are also acceptable in some areas.) Lightweight cotton or other fabrics made for the tropics are best. Tank or sleeveless tops, shorts, and tight-fitting clothes (e.g., items made of Lycra, tight jeans) are not acceptable for men or women. You can have appropriate, inexpensive clothing made by local tailors.
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Although officially secular, Niger is an Islamic country, and most people—especially in the countryside—are devout and conservative in dress and behavior. Alcohol is available in larger towns, but public drinking and boisterous behavior are considered inappropriate. Drugs are illegal and socially taboo, as well as strictly prohibited by Peace Corps regulations.  Public display of affection between the sexes is considered improper.
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===Personal Safety===
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Information about the Peace Corps’ approach to safety is outlined in the Health Care and Safety section, but it is an important issue and cannot be overemphasized. As stated in the Volunteer Handbook, becoming a Peace Corps Volunteer entails certain safety risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment (oftentimes alone), having a limited understanding of local language and culture, and being perceived as well off are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Many Volunteers experience varying degrees of unwanted attention and harassment. Petty thefts and burglaries are not uncommon, and incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although most Niger Volunteers complete their two years of service without personal security incidents. The Peace Corps has established procedures and policies designed to help you reduce your risks and enhance your safety and security. These procedures and policies, in addition to safety training, will be provided once you arrive in Niger. However, you are expected to take significant responsibility for your own safety and well-being.
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===Rewards and Frustrations ===
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You would be correct in concluding, after reading this book, that serving as a Volunteer in Niger is an extraordinarily difficult assignment. Living in a mud hut in an isolated village with no electricity or running water, learning new languages, functioning in a culture far different from your own, being face-to-face with grinding poverty, lacking a structured work environment—these are just a few of the challenges you will face. Work will proceed at an excruciatingly slow pace from the Western perspective, and there will be times when you will wonder if change is taking place at all.
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Impatience and overexcitement due to frustration are viewed by Nigeriens as personality weaknesses and will rarely, if ever, produce a favorable result. Rather than losing your cool, you are better off making fun of the situation with a couple of wry comments or a proverb in a local language.
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Despite these frustrations and bouts of doubt, with patience and perseverance you will ultimately make a significant contribution to your assigned community in Niger. Moreover, you will have considerable flexibility and the opportunity to exercise your initiative and creativity. Along the way, you will learn a great deal—about Nigeriens, about living in a developing country, about poverty, about who you are, and about what it means to be an American in the global context.  You will make close friends and be amazed by their hospitality and ability to cope with extreme adversity. When your assignment is over, you will join 3,000 returned Volunteers from Niger who view their service here as one of the most interesting, formative, and worthwhile periods in their lives.  And your service will continue for the rest of your life as you share what you have learned with others.
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The Peace Corps, particularly in Niger, is not for everyone.  The level of motivation and commitment required to successfully serve here exceeds that needed in most other work environments. If you are up to the challenge, we look forward to working with you.
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How will living and working in communities affected by HIV/AIDS affect me?
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The AIDS pandemic strikes across all social strata in many Peace Corps countries. The loss of teachers has crippled education systems, while illness and disability drains family income and forces governments and donors to redirect limited resources from other priorities. The fear and uncertainty AIDS causes has led to increased domestic violence and stigmatizing of people living with HIV/AIDS, isolating them from friends and family and cutting them off from economic opportunities.  As a Peace Corps Volunteer, you will confront these issues on a very personal level. It is important to be aware of the high emotional toll that disease, death, and violence can have on Volunteers. As you strive to integrate into your community, you will develop relationships with local people who might die during your service. Because of the AIDS pandemic, some Volunteers will be regularly meeting with HIV-positive people and working with training staff, office staff, and host family members living with AIDS. Volunteers need to prepare themselves to embrace these relationships in a sensitive and positive manner. Likewise, malaria and malnutrition, motor vehicle accidents and other unintentional injuries, domestic violence and corporal punishment are problems a Volunteer may confront. You will need to anticipate these situations and utilize supportive resources available throughout your training and service to maintain your own emotional strength so that you can continue to be of service to your community.
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In Niger, unlike many other African countries, AIDS has not yet reached pandemic proportions, and other killer diseases, notably malaria, are much more common. The rate of HIV prevalence is about 1 percent, and victims are mostly concentrated in larger cities. Volunteers in Niger are unlikely to encounter AIDS victims unless they seek them out.
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[[Category:Niger]]
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Revision as of 22:25, 12 March 2009

Diversity and cross-cultural issues in [[{{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
In fulfilling the Peace Corps’ mandate to share the face of America with their host countries, Peace Corps is making special efforts to see that all of America’s richness is reflected in the Volunteer corps. More Americans of color are serving in today’s Peace Corps than at any time in recent years. Differences in race, ethnic background, age, religion, and sexual orientation are expected and welcomed among our Volunteers. Part of the Peace Corps’ mission is to help dispel any notion that Americans are all of one origin or race and to establish that each of us is as thoroughly American as the other despite our many differences.
  • [[Packing list for {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
  • [[Training in {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
  • [[Living conditions and volunteer lifestyles in {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
  • [[Health care and safety in {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
  • [[Diversity and cross-cultural issues in {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
  • [[FAQs about Peace Corps in {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
  • [[History of the Peace Corps in {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]
See also:
[[Category:{{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |5}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |6}} {{#explode:Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Romania| |7}}]]

In fulfilling the Peace Corps’ mandate to share the face of America with our host countries, we are making special efforts to see that all of America’s richness is reflected in the Volunteer corps. More Americans of color are serving in today’s Peace Corps than at any time in recent years. Differences in race, ethnic background, age, religion, and sexual orientation are expected and welcomed among our Volunteers. Part of the Peace Corps’ mission is to help dispel any notion that Americans are all of one origin or race and to establish that each of us is as thoroughly American as the other despite our many differences.

Our diversity helps us accomplish that goal. In other ways, however, it poses challenges. In Romania, as in other Peace Corps host countries, Volunteers’ behavior, lifestyle, background, and beliefs are judged in a cultural context very different from their own. Certain personal perspectives or characteristics commonly accepted in the United States may be quite uncommon, unacceptable, or even repressed in Romania.

Outside of Romania’s capital and other large cities, people have had relatively little direct exposure to other cultures, races, religions, and lifestyles. What people view as typical American behavior or norms may be a misconception, such as the belief that all Americans are rich and have blond hair and blue eyes. The people of Romania are justly known for their generous hospitality to foreigners; however, members of the community in which you will live may display a range of reactions to cultural differences that you present.

To ease the transition and adapt to life in Romania, you may need to make some temporary, yet fundamental compromises in how you present yourself as an American and as an individual. For example, female trainees and Volunteers may not be able to exercise the independence available to them in the United States; political discussions need to be handled with great care; and some of your personal beliefs may best remain undisclosed. You will need to develop techniques and personal strategies for coping with these and other limitations. The Peace Corps staff will lead diversity and sensitivity discussions during pre-service training and will be on call to provide support, but the challenge ultimately will be your own.

Overview of Diversity in Romania

The Peace Corps staff in Romania recognizes adjustment issues that come with diversity and will endeavor to provide support and guidance. During pre-service training, several sessions will be held to discuss diversity and coping mechanisms. We look forward to having male and female Volunteers from a variety of races, ethnic groups, ages, religions, and sexual orientations, and hope that you will become part of a diverse group of Americans who take pride in supporting one another and demonstrating the richness of American culture.

What Might a Volunteer Face?

Possible Issues for Female Volunteers

As with other social matters, there are large differences in attitudes toward gender between smaller and bigger communities and between the older and younger generations.

Stereotypes concerning behavior toward women that exist in southern European cultures can be applied to Romanians as well. By tradition, women are expected to be able to cook and look after the needs of their husbands and children while having their own jobs. On the other hand, men are expected to open doors for women, to offer them seats on public transportation, and to kiss women’s hands when being introduced to them. At work, female Volunteers may feel that their skills are questioned in the predominantly male environment. Many Romanian men will intervene if a woman is performing a task that is considered difficult or demeaning. It is considered masculine to help a woman who seems confused by a minor mechanical or equipment-related problem. In addition, women may be honked at by drivers or yelled at by groups of young men in the streets. In such situations, it is generally best to continue walking and try not to get involved in any conversation.

Possible Issues for Volunteers of Color

There are relatively few people of color in Romania. Most of them are African students and immigrants who live in Bucharest and a few other large cities. Even though there is no history of institutionalized discrimination or hatred directed at black people, African-American Volunteers may hear offensive remarks by younger people who have seen instances of racism in Western movies and think it is acceptable to act in a similar manner. Someone may utter an offensive term because he or she is not aware of the acceptable term in English and not because the person really means to be offensive.

Hispanic American Volunteers may encounter preferential treatment from some Romanians, many of whom are very proud of, and even defensive about, their Latin origins and view Hispanic Americans as kin. Romania has a small community of Asians, many of whom work in business. As a result of news stories about business irregularities in the past years, Asian Americans may be looked at with suspicion. The most common behavior that they encounter is being called “Chinese” or “Japanese” for no reason. Young people may irritate you by demanding that you demonstrate the martial arts skills that Asian Americans supposedly have. Residents of smaller communities may find it difficult to understand that a Volunteer is American, and may ask you when you immigrated to the United States.

Possible Issues for Senior Volunteers

Seniors receive great respect in Romanian culture. In Romanian folklore, the hero often seeks the counsel of the wise old man or woman. There are situations in which senior Volunteers will find themselves challenged, however. A senior who teaches English in a high school may face some disappointment from counterparts and students who wanted a younger teacher. It may take a little time for them to see that age does not have anything to do with a Volunteer’s energy and eagerness.

Older people in Romania generally are less active than seniors in the United States. A senior Volunteer’s Romanian friends might assume that the Volunteer does not want to socialize that much and that he or she would rather stay home and watch television. They may fail to include senior Volunteers in some of their social activities. Another stereotype about older Volunteers is that they have old-fashioned ideas and are not able to adapt to new trends.

Possible Issues for Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Volunteers

Laws that discriminated against sexual minorities recently have been changed, but Romania still has a rather homophobic culture. The younger generation in large cities tends to be more accepting, having been exposed to Western culture through films, documentaries, and even gay people’s visibility. The gay scene has recently grown, but it is still small, underground, and confined mostly to the largest cities. In any event, it is advisable to be careful about revealing one’s sexual orientation in the workplace and the community.

Possible Religious Issues for Volunteers

More than 85 percent of the population is Eastern (Romanian) Orthodox, with less than 5 percent Roman Catholic, 4 percent Protestant, 0.3 percent Muslim, and 0.2 percent Jewish. The Romanian Orthodox Church is hierarchical, dogmatic, and fairly well-to-do. New churches are being built even in poor villages to accommodate the growing membership. You may be asked about your religious affiliation and invited to attend an Orthodox church, but not likely in a pushy manner. It is possible to politely decline if the church or religious practice is not one of your choice. If you want to attend a church other than a Romanian Orthodox one, your options may be limited, especially in smaller towns and rural areas.

Possible Issues for Volunteers With Disabilities

As a disabled Volunteer in Romania, you may find that you face a special set of challenges. As in other parts of the world, some people may hold prejudicial attitudes toward people with disabilities, who are often institutionalized or kept out of public view in Romania. In addition, there is very little infrastructure to accommodate people with disabilities.

As part of the medical clearance process, the Peace Corps Office of Medical Services determined that you were physically and emotionally capable of performing a full tour of Volunteer service in Romania without unreasonable risk of harm to yourself or interruption of your service. The Peace Corps/Romania staff will work with disabled Volunteers to make reasonable accommodations for them in training, housing, job sites, or other areas to enable them to serve safely and effectively.

Possible Issues for Married Volunteers

Married couples may face challenges in their relationships with Romanians resulting from gender role expectations specific to the Latin and male-centered culture. A Volunteer wife may be questioned—directly or as a source of gossip among older Romanian women—as to whether she is taking proper care of her husband, whether she can cook and preserve vegetables for the winter, and whether she spends too much time with other men. The independence demonstrated by the members of an American couple may be perceived as immoral. The wife may be expected to perform all the domestic chores, while the husband may be expected to assume an overtly dominant role in the household. Some Romanian men’s respect for a married male Volunteer may decrease if they learn that he performs domestic tasks. In some instances, a husband may be expected to make a decision without consulting his wife. Yet because of women’s increasing social and professional visibility, perceptions of gender roles in marriage have been changing toward a more Western way of thinking, at least in larger towns and cities.