Difference between pages "Living conditions and volunteer lifestyles in Paraguay" and "Lawsuits against the Peace Corps"

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{{Living_conditions_and_volunteer_lifestyles_by_country}}
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==Pailes v. United States Peace Corps (2009)==
  
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http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=5513002316373502372
  
===Communications ===
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''Background:''
  
====Mail ====
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Plaintiff alleges that he sustained an injury in March 1989 while working in Mali as a volunteer with the United States Peace Corps ("Peace Corps"). See Compl. at 3, 23. Generally, he alleges that the Peace Corps failed to provide him adequate medical treatment and subsequently inserted false information into his medical file pertaining to his diagnosis, see id. at 3, 22-23, placing his "record in false light before the public and within the agency," id. at 28, and "besmirching and impugning [his] character," id. at 27. For reasons that are not clearly articulated in the complaint, plaintiff alleges that he was "officially coercively discharged with an inaccurate medical separation." Id. at 27; see id. at 55. The false information in the medical file allegedly prevents him from securing employment, particularly employment with the federal government or a government contractor. See id. at 23-25, 72.
  
Your mailing address in Paraguay will be:
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It appears that plaintiff brings this action against the Peace Corps under the Rehabilitation Act, 29 U.S.C. § 794, the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), 42 U.S.C. § 12111, et seq., the Federal Employment Compensation Act ("FECA"), 5 U.S.C. § 8101 et seq., the Freedom of Information Act ("FOIA"), 5 U.S.C. § 552, the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a, and the Federal Tort Claims Act ("FTCA"), 28 U.S.C. § 2671, et seq. Among other relief, plaintiff demands compensatory damages and injunctive relief. Compl. at 59, 63, 65-67.
  
“Your Name,” PCT [for trainee] or PCV [for Volunteer]
 
Cuerpo de Paz
 
162 Chaco Boreal c/Mcal. López
 
Asunción 1580, Paraguay
 
South America
 
  
  
Compared with mail in many developing countries, mail between the United States and Paraguay is relatively dependable, albeit slow in arriving. Letters normally take two to three weeks to reach Paraguay; surface mail can take months. Packages and other types of correspondence are delayed much longer and may arrive here in a time lapse which frequently varies from several weeks to several months.  
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==Horowitz v. Peace Corps (2005)==
  
As a result of the departure of two major airlines, only regional carriers now serve Paraguay with smaller aircraft, and cargo space for mail is extremely limited. Packages and other types of correspondence are being delayed for weeks and even months at intermediate points, such as Buenos Aires and Sao Paulo, where they await eventual delivery to Paraguay by other means of transport.  
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http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=397138822823265875
  
All packages from overseas pass through the Paraguayan International Package Center, where postal and customs inspectors determine which packages will be sent directly to the Peace Corps office for distribution and which will be retained for further inspection. Any package—regardless of content, weight, type of packing material, or religious slogans—may be held at the International Package Center (also known as "the package place" or the "package center"). In this case, the Volunteer will receive a notice in his/her mailbox indicating that the package is being retained. PCVs who receive this notification must collect their parcel/s personally; packages must be retrieved within one month of the date on which the notification is prepared.
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''Background:''
  
Another option for sending packages to Paraguay is by courier services such as DHL, FEDEX, and UPS. Although these services are more expensive, packages do arrive here in 3-5 days. Another point in favor is that packages sent through courier services do NOT go through the Paraguay Postal Service. U.S. Express Mail works in the same way.  
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After choosing to resign from his position as a Peace Corps volunteer and thereby avoid the filing of an Administrative Separation Report (ASR) detailing allegations of sexual misconduct, pro se appellant Dr. Michael Horowitz challenges the district court's order allowing the Peace Corps to withhold the draft ASR from release under Exemption 5 of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Horowitz also appeals the district court's denial of his request for access to the same document under the Privacy Act. Finally, the Peace Corps appeals the denial of its attempt to protect the name of the complainant under FOIA Exemption 6.
  
Packages with a declared value—the value claimed on the green sticker affixed to the package—in excess of $100 are usually sent to customs. If the package is sent to customs, the PCV will be assessed a tax based on the type of merchandise and its declared value. Volunteers whose package/s is/are sent to customs will be advised to this effect. Peace Corps/Paraguay‘s customs agent will do the leg- and paperwork to process and retrieve the parcel. The Volunteer is responsible for paying any fees and taxes assessed, as well as the customs agent‘s fees. Note: Packages which arrive through a courier may also be sent to customs.  
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We conclude the district court properly exempted the draft document from release under FOIA Exemption 5 and properly found the document was not part of a system of records subject to disclosure under the Privacy Act. However, we conclude FOIA Exemption 6 also applies; therefore, the name of the alleged victim is not subject to release as a segregable fact.
  
We recommend that you establish a regular pattern of writing or emailing friends and relatives in the United States, as they may become concerned if they do not hear from you for an extended period of time. You may want to tell them, however, that once Volunteers move to their sites and become more involved in their projects, their correspondence habits often change.
 
  
Some Volunteers and their families number their letters in sequence to try to keep track of how many have been sent and received. This is a good way to know whether someone is just too busy to write or if letters are not arriving for some other reason.
 
  
Peace Corps regulations prohibit Volunteers from accepting gifts of property, money, or voluntary services directly. Such gifts can cause confusion about the role of the Volunteer, who might be perceived as a facilitator of goods and funding, rather than a person who is working to build a community‘s capacity to identify local resources. You are not permitted to solicit materials or funds for your community during your first six months at site so that you have time to engage the community in project identification. To ensure that any request for funding or donations is appropriate for your project and your community, you must have prior authorization from your program director and the country director.
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==Jeanette M. Rebuth v. United States Peace Corps (1991)==
  
The Peace Corps has a mechanism in place for you and the communities you work with to access U.S. private-sector funds. The Peace Corps Partnership Program, administered by the Office of Private Sector Initiatives, can help you obtain financial support from corporations, foundations, civic groups, individuals, faith-based groups, and schools for projects approved by the country director. To learn more about the Partnership Program, call 800-424-8580 (ext. 2170), email pcpp@peacecorps.gov, or visit [www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=resources.donors.volproj].  
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http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/947/947.F2d.950.89-16625.html
  
====Telephones ====
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''Background:''
  
International phone service to and from Paraguay is fairly reliable and accessible to most Volunteers. Volunteers are provided with a cellular phone and a basic calling plan. If Volunteers want to increase their minutes and/or upgrade the cellphone model, they must do so with their own living allowance. Although not all areas of the country are accessible by cellphone, most Volunteers are able to call Asunción and to receive international calls with their cellphones. Those who call you on your cellphone from the States must dial the following: 011-595-98x- <your phone number>.  
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Jeanette M. Rebuth appeals pro se the district court's grant of summary judgment in favor of her former employer. She contends that the district court erred in concluding that she failed to establish a prima facie case of discrimination or retaliation under Title VII, 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e-5 (1988) (Title VII), or age discrimination under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 29 U.S.C. §§ 621-634 (1988) (ADEA). She also contends that the district court erred by granting summary judgment on her due process claims and her claims under the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a (1988). Finally, she asserts that the district court should have appointed her counsel and should have fully allowed her motions to compel discovery. We reject all of these contentions and we affirm.
  
The Peace Corps office, in collaboration with the U.S. Embassy in Asunción, has access to a direct phone line between Asunción and Washington, D.C. This line is mainly for conducting official business with Peace Corps headquarters; however, it is available for Volunteer use after office hours during the week, as well as on weekends and holidays. Volunteers can place direct calls to the Washington area at no charge, while calls to all other areas are billed at the long-distance rate from Washington. Use of this line is on a first-come, first-served basis. To utilize this service, Volunteers must have a calling card.
 
  
====Computer, Internet, and E-mail Access ====
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==Wood v. Ruppe (1987)==
  
Paraguay is hardly at the forefront of the ―e-revolution,‖ but Volunteers increasingly are able to rely on the Internet to communicate with family and friends in the United States. There are several Internet cafes in Asunción, and cafes are opening with increasing frequency even in rural towns. There are also computers with Internet access available for trainee and Volunteer use in the Peace Corps office. Many Volunteers acquire free email accounts and use these computers to send and receive email while they are in Asunción on official business. Trainees and Volunteers also use the library's computers for work-related matters. Trainees and Volunteers are assigned individual user accounts, which enable them to access the computer, Internet, etc.; these accounts are non-transferrable. Please note that use of PC computers is restricted to Volunteers and trainees. The office now has "hotspots" throughout the complex to which PCVs can connect. Volunteers are also able to buy a portable modem for use with their personal laptop. This cost will be deducted from the Volunteers‘ monthly living stipend. Many Volunteers find that bringing a laptop is useful to them for filling out their trimester reports for Peace Corps, watching movies, and accessing the Internet. However, do keep in mind that there is always the risk that these computers may get lost, stolen or damaged here in Paraguay.  
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http://net.jasonpearce.com/peacecorps/cos/legalwoodvruppe.html
  
===Housing and Site Location ===
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"Peace Corps policy does not prohibit private speech by its volunteers on matters of political expression, although volunteers are admonished to portray their opinions as their own, and not as representative of the Peace Corps or the U.S. Government's position. ... It is only in situations ... where there has been a direct threat to the interest of the Peace Corps, that speech is prohibited; thus, the policy is narrowly tailored to restrict speech no more than is necessary to protect a compelling government interest."
  
Most Volunteers live and work in rural areas, but more are being assigned to work in urban centers in response to the recent increase in urban migration. The latest census shows that more than half of the population lives in larger towns or cities. Your Volunteer assignment description should indicate whether your project site is likely to be urban or rural. All Volunteers spend some time in Asunción because it is the location of the Peace Corps office, as well as the site of conferences and some in-service trainings.
 
  
About 80 percent of Volunteers live in small towns or villages with fewer than 5,000 people, and some of these campo (countryside) sites have fewer than 200 inhabitants. Most (but not all) have electricity, as the country has increased the availability of electricity from 24 percent of Paraguay’s 3 million people in 1978 to more than 60 percent of the current population of about 5.8 million. Generally, streets in the campo towns are unpaved, and there is no running water or indoor toilets. Few people in these towns have traveled outside Paraguay, and many have never even been to Asunción. The only people with cars are likely to be the doctor, the priest, and a few businesspeople, government officials, and ranchers. Horses, motorcycles, and oxcarts make up the majority of local traffic, while children play freely alongside roaming cows, pigs, and chickens.
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[[Category:resources]]
 
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For both rural and urban Volunteers, housing in Paraguay is basic. All Volunteers are required to live with a Paraguayan family during their initial two months of service. Some Volunteers then choose to live alone in one- or two-room wood or brick homes; others choose to live with a Paraguayan family for their entire two years of service. Peace Corps/ Paraguay strongly recommends that Volunteers, especially single women, consider this option. Living with a family not only helps with community integration, but also decreases personal security risks. If you choose to live with a family, the furniture will be adequate and functional, but probably not overly comfortable. If you choose to live on your own, you will likely need to furnish the place yourself.
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Volunteers who live in the capital or other large cities will have easier access to services such as running water, electricity, telephones, public transportation, and the Internet. They will also find many of the same shopping and entertainment amenities found in similar-size cities in the United States.
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===Living Allowance and Money Management ===
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As a Volunteer, you will receive a living allowance that enables you to maintain a modest but safe and adequate lifestyle. While the living allowance is calculated to enable you to live at the same standard as your Paraguayan neighbors, the Peace Corps requires that Volunteer housing meet minimal standards for security and that Volunteers have the resources to maintain a healthy diet and respectable lifestyle. Living allowances are reviewed once a year to ensure that they are sufficient to meet basic needs, and they are adjusted by the Peace Corps if necessary.
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You will receive three additional allowances: a monthly vacation allowance (along with two days of vacation for each month of service); a one-time settling-in allowance to cover the initial expenses of furnishing a house or room and purchasing basic supplies; and an allowance set aside by the U.S. government of $275 for each month of service. This readjustment allowance, which is available upon completion of service, permits returning Volunteers to resettle in the United States without undue financial burden.
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While Volunteers are expected to live at the same level as the Paraguayans in their communities and are encouraged to make do with the allowances provided by the Peace Corps, some Volunteers bring additional money or credit cards for extraordinary expenses or for travel during vacations. The Peace Corps strongly recommends that cash be held in the form of traveler checks to prevent loss or theft; these checks may be cashed at "MaxiCambios." The ATMs that are increasingly available in Asunción and other large cities accept ATM cards from most U.S. financial institutions, including Citibank. Peace Corps will safeguard traveler‘s checks for Volunteers in the office. Cash will not be safeguarded, nor will PCVs be able to deposit it into their Peace Corps bank accounts. Volunteers are unable to open personal bank accounts in Paraguay due to local banking rules. Keep this in mind should you decide to bring cash, as Peace Corps/Paraguay strongly discourages Volunteers from bringing large amounts of cash. 
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===Food and Diet ===
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Paraguayans tend to eat more simple meals than people do in the United States. Dietary habits and the lack of agricultural diversity often limit meals to beans, rice, noodles, meat (when available), corn, onions, tomatoes, and manioc. Manioc or ''mandioca'' (more commonly known in other countries as yucca or cassava) is the staple food in rural Paraguay and is as ubiquitous at the table as bread is in other countries. Paraguayan food is not spicy and is quite different from Mexican food (for instance, in Paraguay, a tortilla is a kind of fritter). Most Paraguayans are exceptionally generous and will insist on sharing their food, no matter how little they have.
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Volunteers who choose to maintain a vegetarian diet are able to do so with varying degrees of difficulty, as it is a challenge not only to find the variety of foods necessary to remain healthy but to get Paraguayans to understand such a decision. A vegetarian diet is much easier to follow if one incorporates eggs and dairy products, and some Volunteers choose to add fish and chicken.
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===Transportation ===
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Most Volunteers live in communities served by a simple dirt road, which may or may not be close to a paved road. Inexpensive bus service is available to almost all communities, although heavy rain can unexpectedly close dirt roads to bus traffic for an unpredictable length of time. While a community may not be a great distance from the capital in miles, getting there may involve a trip of several hours because of the condition of unpaved roads. You will receive assistance in identifying alternative forms of transportation (i.e., a private vehicle, taxi, or truck) from your site in the event of an emergency. Volunteers may, upon request, be issued a mountain bicycle and helmet.
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Peace Corps/Paraguay, as mandated by Peace Corps/Washington, prohibits Volunteers from driving or riding as a passenger on any two- or three-wheeled motorized vehicle (such as a motorcycle) for any reason. Moreover, Volunteers are not allowed to own or drive private vehicles in Paraguay. These prohibitions are in response to serious safety concerns, and violation of the policy will result in the administrative separation of the Volunteer from Peace Corps service.
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===Geography and Climate ===
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Unlike more tropical countries, Paraguay does have distinct seasons. Summer (November through March) is long, hot, and humid, with temperatures on occasion reaching as high as 115 degrees Fahrenheit (46 degrees Celsius). Winter (June through mid-September) is short and mild, with periods of cold weather (down to 30 F) and occasional frosts. Because of the high humidity and lack of indoor heating, cold winter days may seem more severe than they actually are. The short spring and autumn seasons usually are mild and balmy.
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Because of Paraguay‘s southern latitudes, the length of daylight also differs according to the season. In the winter, the sun may set by 5 p.m. In October, the country goes on Daylight Savings Time, and by mid-December it is light outside until nearly 8:30 p.m. Paraguayans adjust their social and business calendars according to these differences. In the winter, activities are compressed, and people are in bed by 10 p.m.; however, in the summer, people may not even eat dinner until after 10 p.m. At the same time, activities slow down remarkably during the summer, especially in rural areas, and a long midday siesta divides the workday into early morning and late afternoon periods.
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In the eastern part of the country, there is no marked rainy or dry season, and there is apt to be abundant rain throughout the year. Summer rains tend to be short and intense, while winter rains tend to be longer and lighter. There are months with little or no rain and months when it rains nearly every day.
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===Social Activities ===
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Recreation in smaller towns often centers on the family, with an occasional dance, soccer game, or horse race to attend. In the evening, many families gather with friends for volleyball games. The losers pay for drinks, which might be soft drinks (''gaseosas'') or beer. People frequently sit in clusters (often limited to one gender or age group) to drink the ubiquitous yerba mate, a common local drink made from the leaves of a shrub native to the region, either cold (''tereré'') or hot (''mate'') in the early morning or wintertime. During the hot summer, an important social activity is likely to be bathing in the local stream (''arroyo''). The electrification of the countryside has increased the popularity of boom boxes, TVs, DVDs, etc. Volunteers often participate in organized groups, such as ecology clubs or youth groups that meet occasionally for selected activities.
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In Asunción and larger towns, there is a wider variety of options for social activities, including movie theaters, nightclubs, restaurants, and sporting events. Volunteers usually take advantage of their rare weekends in the capital to see the latest movies and enjoy some night life. Volunteers also have access to the swimming pool at the U.S. Embassy while in Asunción.
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===Professionalism, Dress, and Behavior ===
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Cleanliness and a neat personal appearance are very important to Paraguayans, as they are for Volunteers who represent the Peace Corps and the United States. You must dress appropriately when meeting with government or other officials. '''Shorts, tank tops, and flip-flops are inappropriate except around your home or for recreational activities. Whether you work in a school or office setting, in rural or urban Paraguay, proper attire will help establish your professional credibility. It also reflects your respect for the customs and lifestyle of the people with whom you are living and working.'''
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Although affluent Paraguayans in Asunción may be influenced by international trends and fashions, most Paraguayans view shoulder-length hair, dreadlocks, ponytails, tattoos, and earrings on men with suspicion. It is not unusual for a person to be labeled a ''drogadicto'' (drug addict) based on appearance alone. Therefore, Volunteers are not permitted to have facial piercings (nose, tongue, and eyebrow). Tattoos for both men and women should remain covered until Volunteers have been at their sites for at least six months and can realistically judge the degree to which these would be accepted by community members. Female Volunteers should always wear bras outside their homes. Male Volunteers with beards must keep them well-trimmed and clean. Nevertheless, we ask that men arrive in Paraguay clean shaven for their official identification photo.
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If you do not cut your hair and remove body rings before you arrive in Paraguay, you will be asked to do so before you are placed with a host family during training. Adherence to these rules is considered to be a sign of your motivation and commitment to adapt to your new environment. If you have reservations about this, or if you view this as an unacceptable sacrifice, you should re-evaluate your decision to become a Peace Corps Volunteer in Paraguay. If you decide to conform to the country‘s norms, you will be amply rewarded by the great adventure and lasting friendships that await you.
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===Personal Safety ===
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More detailed information about the Peace Corps‘ approach to safety is contained in the ―Health Care and Safety‖ chapter, but it is an important issue and cannot be overemphasized. As stated in the Volunteer Handbook, becoming a Peace Corps Volunteer entails certain safety risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment (oftentimes alone), having a limited understanding of local language and culture, and being perceived as well-off are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Many Volunteers experience varying degrees of unwanted attention and harassment. Petty thefts and burglaries are not uncommon, and incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although most Paraguay Volunteers complete their two years of service without incident. The Peace Corps has established procedures and policies designed to help you reduce your risks and enhance your safety and security. These procedures and policies, in addition to safety training, will be provided once you arrive in Paraguay. Using these tools, you are expected to take responsibility for your safety and well-being.
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Each staff member at the Peace Corps is committed to providing Volunteers with the support they need to successfully meet the challenges they will face to have a safe, healthy, and productive service. We encourage Volunteers and families to look at our safety and security information on the Peace Corps website at [www.peacecorps.gov/safety].
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Information on these pages gives messages on Volunteer health and Volunteer safety. There is a section titled Safety and Security in Depth. Among topics addressed are the risks of serving as a Volunteer, posts‘ safety support systems, and emergency planning and communications.
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===Rewards and Frustrations ===
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Volunteers have a variety of reasons for joining the Peace Corps, but high on the list must be the desire to help others. Most Volunteers bring a high degree of motivation and enthusiasm to their service. These are not lost in serving others, but are necessarily tempered by the process of learning about the daily realities of a different culture. So while Volunteers should not expect to ―change the world,‖ they can look forward to making a tangible impact.
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Being a Volunteer requires adjusting to alternative ways of thinking, living, and working. Such adjustments are neither simple nor painless. The people you work with may have strong feelings of pride and nationalism, so your own enthusiasm for change, however well intended, may be misunderstood. You will constantly need to take into consideration the emotions, needs, traditions, institutions, and way of life of the people you work with.
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Your satisfaction will come from your commitment to learning and the flexibility you possess to deal with new values and experiences. After living and working with the people of another culture, Volunteers often develop strong ties that are reflected in strong emotions. Intense feelings of desperation, satisfaction, anger, happiness, anxiety, and peace of mind will crop up over and over. These feelings are the heart of the Volunteer experience. But in the end, it is a rare Volunteer who does not feel that the experience was one of the most important in his or her life.
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[[Category:Paraguay]]
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Latest revision as of 07:57, 21 May 2014

Pailes v. United States Peace Corps (2009)[edit]

http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=5513002316373502372

Background:

Plaintiff alleges that he sustained an injury in March 1989 while working in Mali as a volunteer with the United States Peace Corps ("Peace Corps"). See Compl. at 3, 23. Generally, he alleges that the Peace Corps failed to provide him adequate medical treatment and subsequently inserted false information into his medical file pertaining to his diagnosis, see id. at 3, 22-23, placing his "record in false light before the public and within the agency," id. at 28, and "besmirching and impugning [his] character," id. at 27. For reasons that are not clearly articulated in the complaint, plaintiff alleges that he was "officially coercively discharged with an inaccurate medical separation." Id. at 27; see id. at 55. The false information in the medical file allegedly prevents him from securing employment, particularly employment with the federal government or a government contractor. See id. at 23-25, 72.

It appears that plaintiff brings this action against the Peace Corps under the Rehabilitation Act, 29 U.S.C. § 794, the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), 42 U.S.C. § 12111, et seq., the Federal Employment Compensation Act ("FECA"), 5 U.S.C. § 8101 et seq., the Freedom of Information Act ("FOIA"), 5 U.S.C. § 552, the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a, and the Federal Tort Claims Act ("FTCA"), 28 U.S.C. § 2671, et seq. Among other relief, plaintiff demands compensatory damages and injunctive relief. Compl. at 59, 63, 65-67.


Horowitz v. Peace Corps (2005)[edit]

http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=397138822823265875

Background:

After choosing to resign from his position as a Peace Corps volunteer and thereby avoid the filing of an Administrative Separation Report (ASR) detailing allegations of sexual misconduct, pro se appellant Dr. Michael Horowitz challenges the district court's order allowing the Peace Corps to withhold the draft ASR from release under Exemption 5 of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Horowitz also appeals the district court's denial of his request for access to the same document under the Privacy Act. Finally, the Peace Corps appeals the denial of its attempt to protect the name of the complainant under FOIA Exemption 6.

We conclude the district court properly exempted the draft document from release under FOIA Exemption 5 and properly found the document was not part of a system of records subject to disclosure under the Privacy Act. However, we conclude FOIA Exemption 6 also applies; therefore, the name of the alleged victim is not subject to release as a segregable fact.


Jeanette M. Rebuth v. United States Peace Corps (1991)[edit]

http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/947/947.F2d.950.89-16625.html

Background:

Jeanette M. Rebuth appeals pro se the district court's grant of summary judgment in favor of her former employer. She contends that the district court erred in concluding that she failed to establish a prima facie case of discrimination or retaliation under Title VII, 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e-5 (1988) (Title VII), or age discrimination under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 29 U.S.C. §§ 621-634 (1988) (ADEA). She also contends that the district court erred by granting summary judgment on her due process claims and her claims under the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552a (1988). Finally, she asserts that the district court should have appointed her counsel and should have fully allowed her motions to compel discovery. We reject all of these contentions and we affirm.


Wood v. Ruppe (1987)[edit]

http://net.jasonpearce.com/peacecorps/cos/legalwoodvruppe.html

"Peace Corps policy does not prohibit private speech by its volunteers on matters of political expression, although volunteers are admonished to portray their opinions as their own, and not as representative of the Peace Corps or the U.S. Government's position. ... It is only in situations ... where there has been a direct threat to the interest of the Peace Corps, that speech is prohibited; thus, the policy is narrowly tailored to restrict speech no more than is necessary to protect a compelling government interest."