Difference between pages "History of the Peace Corps in Swaziland" and "History of the Peace Corps in Tonga"

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The Peace Corps has a rich and extensive history in the Kingdom of Tonga. Volunteers first arrived in October 1967 at the invitation of King Taufa’ahau Tupou IV. The initial group consisted of only 39 trainees; by the end of that first year, there were more than 400 Volunteers and trainees in Tonga.  Since then, more than 1,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in Tonga, primarily as teachers. However, Peace Corps programming in Tonga has also included work in fisheries, agriculture, physical therapy, architecture, health, marine biology, water resources, cooperatives, business, construction, environment, and youth.
  
 +
Today, approximately 50 Volunteers are serving in Tonga.  Current Volunteers are working in the community micro-enterprise development and community education projects.  Both incorporate elements from previous programs and future Volunteers will build upon the foundations established by several generations of Volunteers in Tonga.
  
 +
The community education project focuses on both formal and nonformal education at the village level. Most Volunteers serve in the communities with the greatest needs in Tonga, including remote outer islands and the smaller villages on the main island of Tongatapu. Volunteers divide their time roughly equally between their formal work as enrichment teachers in the classroom and their nonformal education activities at the community level. This approach helps establish schools as centers for community education and development throughout the kingdom.
  
 +
In the schools, most education Volunteers serve as enrichment teachers for English as a second language (ESL) at the elementary and secondary school levels. Volunteers work closely with a Tongan counterpart teacher to develop, enhance, and enrich the English language instruction at all grade levels in their schools. Volunteers also help to develop resources, including library and computer resources, and increase the links between schools and communities.  Many Volunteers are involved in creating and implementing community classes in the information technology (IT) and English fields. They are involved in a range of extracurricular activities including arts, music, physical education, sports leagues, and student clubs.
  
 +
Outside the classroom, education Volunteers work closely with a wide range of community organizations including youth groups, women’s groups, church groups, and others.  Using nonformal education techniques appropriate for adult audiences, Volunteers focus especially on environmental and health education. Volunteers promote appropriate solid waste management, recycling, integrated coastal management, and ecotourism development. The most important health education issues in Tonga are related to preventing noncommunicable diseases. To that end, Volunteers have created exercise programs and developed nutrition workshops and activities with community groups and through the formal school setting.
  
The Peace Corps was invited to work in Swaziland in 1969, a few months after the country gained independence from Great Britain. Over the next 28 years, 1,400 Peace Corps Volunteers served in Swaziland, working in the education and agriculture sectors. Playing a prominent role in Swaziland’s development, Volunteers taught English, agriculture, mathematics, science, and vocational education in secondary schools and promoted agricultural cooperatives in rural areas. A small number of volunteers were stationed in the urban areas, doing projects such as technical training at Swaziland College of Technology (SCOT) and in Manzini, computer work in the Ministry of Finance, urban planning, and geology.
+
The community micro-enterprise development project is designed to meet the pressing needs of income-generating employment and capacity building for economic growth throughout the kingdom. Micro-enterprise Volunteers advise and motivate potential business entrepreneurs and provide training for youth, women, and communities throughout the kingdom. They work through programs provided by the Tonga Development Bank; the Ministry of Labor, Commerce, Industries and Tourism; and the Tonga National Youth Congress. Volunteers work with local counterparts and clients to develop appropriate training programs and provide effective advice on financial and managerial topics, marketing techniques, skills development, and motivation to those who are interested in starting a business or participating in income-generating activities.  
  
A programming review in 1994 recommended that Peace Corps/Swaziland begin phasing out the education project because of the Ministry of Education’s lack of long-term priorities and objectives for the education sector. In addition, the ministry did not have a strategy for overcoming the increasing deficit of qualified secondary school teachers. These factors made the sustainability of the education project difficult.  
+
Micro-enterprise Volunteers work in a variety of business fields, including solid-waste management, recycling, sports, ecotourism, and farm and small-scale agribusiness management. Many of these business activities complement community education project activities.  
  
The same review recommended the design of an environment project to protect the environment, further the education of the public on conservation issues, and promote small business development. This project was successfully launched in 1995, but in 1996, the Peace Corps faced budgetary constraints that necessitated the early closure of the Peace Corps/Swaziland program.
+
All Volunteers regardless of sector work at their sites and in their villages on disaster preparedness, mitigation, and assessment activities. They work with their schools, town officers, and town councils to ensure that their communities are prepared for any disasters that might occur.
  
 
+
==Assignment History==
 
 
===History and Future of Peace Corps Programming in Swaziland===
 
 
 
The greatest problem confronting the people of Swaziland is the HIV/AIDS pandemic. As of 2005, the infection rate of adults (ages 15 to 49) was 42.6 percent, giving Swaziland the highest HIV rate in the world. In addition, approximately 70,000 children have been orphaned as a result of AIDS.
 
 
 
Despite King Mswati III’s declaration of AIDS as a national crisis, little additional government funding has been allocated to combating the disease. Moreover, the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland is exacerbating the impact of the current food crisis and drought in-country. The United Nations estimates that almost one-quarter of the population will require food assistance. The current rate of life expectancy in Swaziland, as a result of HIV/AIDS, is down to 37.5 years of age.
 
 
 
In April 2002, a Peace Corps assessment team visited Swaziland to determine how Volunteers could assist the Swazi people. The team found that the overwhelming effects of AIDS on the country’s people indicated a need for immediate assistance. The areas in which the Peace Corps feels it can best help the people of Swaziland are training teachers and community members in life skills aimed at HIV/AIDS prevention, initiating and promoting programs in HIV/AIDS awareness, identifying partnerships and resource alliances to fight the epidemic, strengthening existing HIV/AIDS intervention strategies and activities, mobilizing communities to respond to the effects of HIV/AIDS, and working with in-school and out-of-school youth.
 
 
 
The Peace Corps reopened its Swaziland program in 2003.  The program is now devoted entirely to HIV/AIDS prevention, mitigation, care, and support.
 
 
 
The AIDS pandemic strikes across all social strata in many Peace Corps countries. The loss of teachers has crippled education systems, while illness and disability drains family income and forces governments and donors to redirect limited resources from other priorities. The fear and uncertainty AIDS causes has led to increased domestic violence and stigmatizing of people living with HIV/AIDS, isolating them from friends and family and cutting them off from economic opportunities.  As a Peace Corps Volunteer, you will confront these issues on a very personal level. It is important to be aware of the high emotional toll that disease, death, and violence can have on Volunteers. As you strive to integrate into your community, you will develop relationships with local people who might die during your service. Because of the AIDS pandemic, some Volunteers will be regularly meeting with HIV-positive people and working with training staff, office staff, and host family members living with AIDS. Volunteers need to prepare themselves to embrace these relationships in a sensitive and positive manner. Likewise, malaria and malnutrition, motor vehicle accidents and other unintentional injuries, domestic violence and corporal punishment are problems a Volunteer may confront. You will need to anticipate these situations and utilize supportive resources available throughout your training and service to maintain your own emotional strength so that you can continue to be of service to your community.
 
 
 
===Assignment History===
 
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0"
Line 37: Line 27:
 
| align="center" | '''[[Sector]]''' || '''[[Assignment]]''' || '''[[Beg. Yr]]''' || '''[[End. Yr]]'''
 
| align="center" | '''[[Sector]]''' || '''[[Assignment]]''' || '''[[Beg. Yr]]''' || '''[[End. Yr]]'''
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="10" align="center"| '''[[Agriculture]]'''
+
| rowspan="9" align="center"| '''[[Agriculture]]'''
 
| [[Ag Economics]]
 
| [[Ag Economics]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1989]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1989]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ag Education]]
 
| [[Ag Education]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
| [[1987]]
+
| [[1986]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ag Extension]]
 
| [[Ag Extension]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1969]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[2000]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Animal Husband]]
 
| [[Animal Husband]]
Line 55: Line 45:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Animal Husband Lg]]
 
| [[Animal Husband Lg]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1990]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Apiculture]]
 
| [[Apiculture]]
| [[1974]]
+
| [[1971]]
| [[1974]]
+
| [[1976]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Crop Extension]]
 
| [[Crop Extension]]
| [[1969]]
+
| [[1967]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1992]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Farm Mechanics]]
 
| [[Farm Mechanics]]
| [[1984]]
+
| [[1982]]
 
| [[1984]]
 
| [[1984]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Fisheries Marine]]
 
| [[Fisheries Marine]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1982]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1991]]
|-
 
| [[Soil Science]]
 
| [[1994]]
 
| [[1994]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="7" align="center"| '''[[Business]]'''
 
| rowspan="7" align="center"| '''[[Business]]'''
 
| [[Accounting]]
 
| [[Accounting]]
| [[1975]]
+
| [[1982]]
| [[1987]]
+
| [[1994]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Archictecture]]
 
| [[Archictecture]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1982]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Business Advising]]
 
| [[Business Advising]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1970]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[2007]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Business Development]]
 +
| [[1970]]
 +
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Computer Science]]
 
| [[Computer Science]]
 
| [[1992]]
 
| [[1992]]
| [[1993]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Cooperatives]]
 
| [[Cooperatives]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1990]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[NGO Advising]]
 
| [[NGO Advising]]
| [[2007]]
+
| [[1995]]
| [[2007]]
+
| [[2006]]
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[Crisis Corps]]'''
 +
| [[Crisis Corps]]
 +
| [[1990]]
 +
| [[1990]]
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="16" align="center"| '''[[Education]]'''
 +
| [[Art Education]]
 +
| [[1984]]
 +
| [[1984]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Urban and Regional Planning]]
+
| [[Bus. Ed/Sectl Skl]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[1984]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="14" align="center"| '''[[Education]]'''
 
 
| [[English Teacher]]
 
| [[English Teacher]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[1970]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2002]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[English Teacher Trainer]]
 +
| [[1991]]
 +
| [[2004]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Fisheries Fresh]]
 
| [[Fisheries Fresh]]
 +
| [[2000]]
 +
| [[2000]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Gen. Construction]]
 +
| [[1985]]
 +
| [[2003]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Home Economics]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
|-
 
| [[Gen. Construction]]
 
| [[1980]]
 
| [[1987]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Industrial Arts]]
 
| [[Industrial Arts]]
| [[1982]]
+
| [[1979]]
| [[1993]]
+
| [[1996]]
|-
 
| [[Library Science]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Phys. Ed/Youth Wk]]
 
| [[Phys. Ed/Youth Wk]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1994]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1998]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Prim-Ed/Teach Trn]]
 
| [[Prim-Ed/Teach Trn]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Science Ed/Gen.]]
 
| [[Science Ed/Gen.]]
| [[1990]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1990]]
+
| [[1987]]
|-
 
| [[Science Teacher Trainer]]
 
| [[1993]]
 
| [[1993]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Math]]
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Math]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1991]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2000]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Sci.]]
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Sci.]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1979]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2000]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Special Ed/Gen.]]
 
| [[Special Ed/Gen.]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1985]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Speech Therapy]]
+
| [[Univ. English Teaching]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1978]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[2002]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Voc. Trainer]]
 
| [[Voc. Trainer]]
| [[1972]]
+
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1992]]
 
| [[1992]]
 
|-
 
|-
Line 167: Line 166:
 
| [[Comm Forestry Ext]]
 
| [[Comm Forestry Ext]]
 
| [[1987]]
 
| [[1987]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[1998]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Environmental Ed.]]
 
| [[Environmental Ed.]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[1990]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Forestry]]
 
| [[Forestry]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1986]]
| [[1987]]
+
| [[1992]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Protected Areas Management]]
 
| [[Protected Areas Management]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[1992]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2003]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="5" align="center"| '''[[Health]]'''
+
| rowspan="6" align="center"| '''[[Health]]'''
 
| [[Envir. and Water Resource]]
 
| [[Envir. and Water Resource]]
 
| [[1972]]
 
| [[1972]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1982]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Health Degreed]]
 
| [[Health Degreed]]
| [[1975]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1975]]
+
| [[1991]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Health Extension]]
 
| [[Health Extension]]
| [[1982]]
+
| [[1980]]
 
| [[2007]]
 
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Home Econ/Ext.]]
 
| [[Home Econ/Ext.]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1990]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1990]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Hygiene Ed/Sanitation]]
 
| [[Hygiene Ed/Sanitation]]
| [[1980]]
+
| [[1979]]
| [[1992]]
+
| [[1986]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Physical Therapy]]
 +
| [[1985]]
 +
| [[1987]]
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[Master's International]]'''
 +
| [[Masters Internationalist]]
 +
| [[1999]]
 +
| [[1999]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" align="center"| '''[[Other]]'''
 
| rowspan="2" align="center"| '''[[Other]]'''
 
| [[Flexible App]]
 
| [[Flexible App]]
| [[1975]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1975]]
+
| [[1992]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Unique Skill]]
 
| [[Unique Skill]]
 
| [[1979]]
 
| [[1979]]
| [[1995]]
+
| [[1993]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[UNV]]'''
 
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[UNV]]'''
 
| [[United Nations Volunteer]]
 
| [[United Nations Volunteer]]
| [[1974]]
+
| [[1976]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[1995]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="4" align="center"| '''[[Youth and Community Development]]'''
+
| rowspan="5" align="center"| '''[[Youth and Community Development]]'''
 
| [[Appropriate Tech.]]
 
| [[Appropriate Tech.]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1983]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1995]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Commun. Serv/Deg.]]
 
| [[Commun. Serv/Deg.]]
| [[1968]]
+
| [[1979]]
| [[1987]]
+
| [[2004]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Mechanics]]
 
| [[Mechanics]]
| [[1974]]
+
| [[1983]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1983]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Road Const/Engin.]]
 +
| [[1973]]
 +
| [[1976]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Rural Youth Dev.]]
+
| [[Youth Development]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1995]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
[[Category:Swaziland]]
+
[[Category:Tonga]]

Revision as of 02:44, 13 March 2009

History of the Peace Corps
vvZFOeV9RWw|250}}
Since 1960, when then Senator John F. Kennedy challenged students at the University of Michigan to serve their country in the cause of peace by living and working in developing countries, more than 182,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in 138 countries all over the globe.

See also:



The Peace Corps has a rich and extensive history in the Kingdom of Tonga. Volunteers first arrived in October 1967 at the invitation of King Taufa’ahau Tupou IV. The initial group consisted of only 39 trainees; by the end of that first year, there were more than 400 Volunteers and trainees in Tonga. Since then, more than 1,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in Tonga, primarily as teachers. However, Peace Corps programming in Tonga has also included work in fisheries, agriculture, physical therapy, architecture, health, marine biology, water resources, cooperatives, business, construction, environment, and youth.

Today, approximately 50 Volunteers are serving in Tonga. Current Volunteers are working in the community micro-enterprise development and community education projects. Both incorporate elements from previous programs and future Volunteers will build upon the foundations established by several generations of Volunteers in Tonga.

The community education project focuses on both formal and nonformal education at the village level. Most Volunteers serve in the communities with the greatest needs in Tonga, including remote outer islands and the smaller villages on the main island of Tongatapu. Volunteers divide their time roughly equally between their formal work as enrichment teachers in the classroom and their nonformal education activities at the community level. This approach helps establish schools as centers for community education and development throughout the kingdom.

In the schools, most education Volunteers serve as enrichment teachers for English as a second language (ESL) at the elementary and secondary school levels. Volunteers work closely with a Tongan counterpart teacher to develop, enhance, and enrich the English language instruction at all grade levels in their schools. Volunteers also help to develop resources, including library and computer resources, and increase the links between schools and communities. Many Volunteers are involved in creating and implementing community classes in the information technology (IT) and English fields. They are involved in a range of extracurricular activities including arts, music, physical education, sports leagues, and student clubs.

Outside the classroom, education Volunteers work closely with a wide range of community organizations including youth groups, women’s groups, church groups, and others. Using nonformal education techniques appropriate for adult audiences, Volunteers focus especially on environmental and health education. Volunteers promote appropriate solid waste management, recycling, integrated coastal management, and ecotourism development. The most important health education issues in Tonga are related to preventing noncommunicable diseases. To that end, Volunteers have created exercise programs and developed nutrition workshops and activities with community groups and through the formal school setting.

The community micro-enterprise development project is designed to meet the pressing needs of income-generating employment and capacity building for economic growth throughout the kingdom. Micro-enterprise Volunteers advise and motivate potential business entrepreneurs and provide training for youth, women, and communities throughout the kingdom. They work through programs provided by the Tonga Development Bank; the Ministry of Labor, Commerce, Industries and Tourism; and the Tonga National Youth Congress. Volunteers work with local counterparts and clients to develop appropriate training programs and provide effective advice on financial and managerial topics, marketing techniques, skills development, and motivation to those who are interested in starting a business or participating in income-generating activities.

Micro-enterprise Volunteers work in a variety of business fields, including solid-waste management, recycling, sports, ecotourism, and farm and small-scale agribusiness management. Many of these business activities complement community education project activities.

All Volunteers regardless of sector work at their sites and in their villages on disaster preparedness, mitigation, and assessment activities. They work with their schools, town officers, and town councils to ensure that their communities are prepared for any disasters that might occur.

Assignment History

Sector Assignment Beg. Yr End. Yr
Agriculture Ag Economics 1989 1989
Ag Education 1981 1986
Ag Extension 1969 2000
Animal Husband 1981 1981
Animal Husband Lg 1980 1990
Apiculture 1971 1976
Crop Extension 1967 1992
Farm Mechanics 1982 1984
Fisheries Marine 1982 1991
Business Accounting 1982 1994
Archictecture 1981 1982
Business Advising 1970 2007
Business Development 1970 2007
Computer Science 1992 2007
Cooperatives 1981 1990
NGO Advising 1995 2006
Crisis Corps Crisis Corps 1990 1990
Education Art Education 1984 1984
Bus. Ed/Sectl Skl 1980 1984
English Teacher 1970 2002
English Teacher Trainer 1991 2004
Fisheries Fresh 2000 2000
Gen. Construction 1985 2003
Home Economics 1981 1981
Industrial Arts 1979 1996
Phys. Ed/Youth Wk 1994 1998
Prim-Ed/Teach Trn 1980 2007
Science Ed/Gen. 1980 1987
Secondary-Ed Math 1991 2000
Secondary-Ed Sci. 1979 2000
Special Ed/Gen. 1981 1985
Univ. English Teaching 1978 2002
Voc. Trainer 1981 1992
Environment Comm Forestry Ext 1987 1998
Environmental Ed. 1990 2007
Forestry 1986 1992
Protected Areas Management 1992 2003
Health Envir. and Water Resource 1972 1982
Health Degreed 1980 1991
Health Extension 1980 2007
Home Econ/Ext. 1990 1990
Hygiene Ed/Sanitation 1979 1986
Physical Therapy 1985 1987
Master's International Masters Internationalist 1999 1999
Other Flexible App 1980 1992
Unique Skill 1979 1993
UNV United Nations Volunteer 1976 1995
Youth and Community Development Appropriate Tech. 1983 1995
Commun. Serv/Deg. 1979 2004
Mechanics 1983 1983
Road Const/Engin. 1973 1976
Youth Development 1995 2007