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(Lesson Plans)
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*'''Title: Dot'''
*'''Title: Dot'''
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:''Topic:'' Elements of Design
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:''Topic'': Elements of Design
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:''Materials:'' sketchbook, pencil
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:''Materials'': sketchbook, pencil
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:''Time:'' 1 period
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:''Time'': 1 period
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:''Objective:'' To introduce students to the elements of design using the dot.
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:''Objective'': To introduce students to the elements of design using the dot.
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:''Procedure:'' Give definition: A dot is a round point or small round spot.
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:''Procedure'': Give definition: A dot is a round point or small round spot.
:Have students show all the dots in the room, large and small, on themselves, their belongings, the wall, etc. Then, take them outside and have them point out all the dots they find in nature. Have them collect three dots (rocks, eraser on pencil, etc.) and trace them in their drawing books. Some can be coloured in and some left alone.
:Have students show all the dots in the room, large and small, on themselves, their belongings, the wall, etc. Then, take them outside and have them point out all the dots they find in nature. Have them collect three dots (rocks, eraser on pencil, etc.) and trace them in their drawing books. Some can be coloured in and some left alone.
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*'''Title: Line'''
*'''Title: Line'''
 +
:''Topic:'' Elements of Design
:''Topic:'' Elements of Design
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:''Materials:'' drawing book and pencil
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:''Materials'': drawing book and pencil
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:''Time:'' 1 period
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:''Time'': 1 period
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:''Objective:'' Become familiar with lines everywhere, continue with the elements of design, and build art vocabulary.
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:''Objective'': Become familiar with lines everywhere, continue with the elements of design, and build art vocabulary.
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:''Procedure:'' Define. A path made by a moving dot. Have students give examples of lines in the room and then take them outside to observe lines in the world. Collect three lines (stick, stem, grass, etc.) outside and trace them. Shade some but leave others alone to show variety in line. Students should come up to the board and draw the lines they learned from the textbook and label them.
+
:''Procedure'': Define. A path made by a moving dot. Have students give examples of lines in the room and then take them outside to observe lines in the world. Collect three lines (stick, stem, grass, etc.) outside and trace them. Shade some but leave others alone to show variety in line. Students should come up to the board and draw the lines they learned from the textbook and label them.
:A few activities:
:A few activities:
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*'''Title: Negative Space'''
*'''Title: Negative Space'''
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:''Topic:'' Elements of Design, space as shape
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:''Topic'': Elements of Design, space as shape
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:''Materials:'' paper, pencil, crayon, scissors, tape
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:''Materials'': paper, pencil, crayon, scissors, tape
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:''Time:'' 2 periods
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:''Time'': 2 periods
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:''Objective:'' To understand that space, both positive and negative, when drawn on paper, is shape.
+
:''Objective'': To understand that space, both positive and negative, when drawn on paper, is shape.
:''Procedure:'' On a sheet of paper, draw at least three large shapes, making sure that each shape is touching the edge of the paper in two places. These are your positive spaces. Once the paper is filled, redraw the shapes, darkening the lines. Pick one negative space and stare at it for a long minute until you see it as a shape. Do this for all the shapes on your paper. Then, with one colour crayon, shade in the negative space to intensify the fact that they are shapes. Cut out the negative areas and reconstruct them on the desk or a piece of coloured paper to fully observe these shaded negative spaces as shapes. Tape on backside and hang up.
:''Procedure:'' On a sheet of paper, draw at least three large shapes, making sure that each shape is touching the edge of the paper in two places. These are your positive spaces. Once the paper is filled, redraw the shapes, darkening the lines. Pick one negative space and stare at it for a long minute until you see it as a shape. Do this for all the shapes on your paper. Then, with one colour crayon, shade in the negative space to intensify the fact that they are shapes. Cut out the negative areas and reconstruct them on the desk or a piece of coloured paper to fully observe these shaded negative spaces as shapes. Tape on backside and hang up.
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*'''Title: Leaf Mobile'''
*'''Title: Leaf Mobile'''
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:''Topic:'' Mobile Making
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:''Topic'': Mobile Making
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:''Materials:'' leaves, paint, scissors, paper (newspaper or scraps), glue, needle and thread, sticks, string, hammer, nails
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:''Materials'': leaves, paint, scissors, paper (newspaper or scraps), glue, needle and thread, sticks, string, hammer, nails
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:''Time:'' 3 periods
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:''Time'': 3 periods
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:''Objective:'' For the students to work together to make one project.
+
:''Objective'': For the students to work together to make one project.
-
:''Procedure:''  
+
:''Procedure'':
:Day 1 Objective: To understand the function of a mobile (a balanced result of many elements of design) and to produce two identical leaf rubbings. Have students look up mobile in the dictionary. Afterwards, talk about what they think it will look like (maybe have them draw up their expectations on the board) and what it will show them (the clarification of a design). Go outside and collect a variety of leaves, on the large side. Using any available paint or local dyes mixed in water, paint the leaves using fingers or brushes. Be sure there is plenty of paint on the leaf. Take a piece of paper larger than the leaf, fold it in half, open it up again place the leaf inside face up. Fold the paper over the painted leaf and rub on the backside of the paper. Quickly, so the paint has no time to dry, open the paper, remove the leaf and fold again and rub, making a duplicate print. Let dry.
:Day 1 Objective: To understand the function of a mobile (a balanced result of many elements of design) and to produce two identical leaf rubbings. Have students look up mobile in the dictionary. Afterwards, talk about what they think it will look like (maybe have them draw up their expectations on the board) and what it will show them (the clarification of a design). Go outside and collect a variety of leaves, on the large side. Using any available paint or local dyes mixed in water, paint the leaves using fingers or brushes. Be sure there is plenty of paint on the leaf. Take a piece of paper larger than the leaf, fold it in half, open it up again place the leaf inside face up. Fold the paper over the painted leaf and rub on the backside of the paper. Quickly, so the paint has no time to dry, open the paper, remove the leaf and fold again and rub, making a duplicate print. Let dry.
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*'''Title: Who Are You?'''
*'''Title: Who Are You?'''
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:''Topic:'' Picture Making
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:''Topic'': Picture Making
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:''Materials:'' glue, scissors, magazines, rulers
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:''Materials'': glue, scissors, magazines, rulers
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:''Time:'' 5-6 periods
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:''Time'': 5-6 periods
-
:''Objective:'' Build self concept. Emphasize design and locally available products. Encourage English usage and finding adjectives or words to describe themselves. Students will also practice collage.
+
:''Objective'': Build self concept. Emphasize design and locally available products. Encourage English usage and finding adjectives or words to describe themselves. Students will also practice collage.
-
:''Procedure:''  
+
:''Procedure'':
:1. Ask students, “Who are you?” Encourage them to use creative words, to use their imaginations. Discuss adjectives.  
:1. Ask students, “Who are you?” Encourage them to use creative words, to use their imaginations. Discuss adjectives.  
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:3. Discuss self identity and how students can choose both words and images they like from magazines. Emphasize that the colours and images they choose will tell the viewer something about them.
:3. Discuss self identity and how students can choose both words and images they like from magazines. Emphasize that the colours and images they choose will tell the viewer something about them.
-
:''Evaluation:'' Have the students write one paragraph about themselves explaining how the collage describes them. Look at the composition of the collage.
+
:''Evaluation'': Have the students write one paragraph about themselves explaining how the collage describes them. Look at the composition of the collage.
:Students will want to use scissors to cut everything. Encourage them to carefully tear edges.
:Students will want to use scissors to cut everything. Encourage them to carefully tear edges.
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*'''Title: Research Project'''
*'''Title: Research Project'''
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:''Topic:'' Terms in art
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:''Topic'': Terms in art
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:''Materials:'' Students will locate their own materials.
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:''Materials'': Students will locate their own materials.
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:''Time:'' 1 term
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:''Time'': 1 term
:''Objective:'' Students will become knowledgeable about one art form and be able to share their understanding with the class.
:''Objective:'' Students will become knowledgeable about one art form and be able to share their understanding with the class.
-
:''Procedure:''
+
:''Procedure'':
:1. Students will work in groups of four or five people. Each group will be assigned one of the following topics: basketry, textiles, graphics, picture making, pottery, performing arts.  
:1. Students will work in groups of four or five people. Each group will be assigned one of the following topics: basketry, textiles, graphics, picture making, pottery, performing arts.  
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*'''Title: Introduction to Terms in Art'''
*'''Title: Introduction to Terms in Art'''
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Topic: Terms in Art
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:''Topic'': Terms in Art
Materials: paper and pen
Materials: paper and pen

Revision as of 10:14, 10 April 2011

Contents

Visual and Creative Arts

Lesson Plans

Topic: Elements of Design
Materials: sketchbook, pencil
Time: 1 period
Objective: To introduce students to the elements of design using the dot.
Procedure: Give definition: A dot is a round point or small round spot.
Have students show all the dots in the room, large and small, on themselves, their belongings, the wall, etc. Then, take them outside and have them point out all the dots they find in nature. Have them collect three dots (rocks, eraser on pencil, etc.) and trace them in their drawing books. Some can be coloured in and some left alone.
In addition to this class lesson, a good assignment is to have students look for dots outside of school, on their walk to town, in their chores, in nature, at home ... and ask them to draw each one they see and explain why they are considered dots.
Topic: Elements of Design
Materials: drawing book and pencil
Time: 1 period
Objective: Become familiar with lines everywhere, continue with the elements of design, and build art vocabulary.
Procedure: Define. A path made by a moving dot. Have students give examples of lines in the room and then take them outside to observe lines in the world. Collect three lines (stick, stem, grass, etc.) outside and trace them. Shade some but leave others alone to show variety in line. Students should come up to the board and draw the lines they learned from the textbook and label them.
A few activities:
1. Tell the students to arrange themselves in a particular type of line. For example, tell them to show you undulating and they are to stretch themselves across the room or space outside in a waving pattern.
2. Draw a line on the board and have your students give it two names, e.g., thin and horizontal. Draw 10 or so on the board and instruct the students to use two names to describe each line as an in-class assignment or for homework.
Topic: Elements of Design, space as shape
Materials: paper, pencil, crayon, scissors, tape
Time: 2 periods
Objective: To understand that space, both positive and negative, when drawn on paper, is shape.
Procedure: On a sheet of paper, draw at least three large shapes, making sure that each shape is touching the edge of the paper in two places. These are your positive spaces. Once the paper is filled, redraw the shapes, darkening the lines. Pick one negative space and stare at it for a long minute until you see it as a shape. Do this for all the shapes on your paper. Then, with one colour crayon, shade in the negative space to intensify the fact that they are shapes. Cut out the negative areas and reconstruct them on the desk or a piece of coloured paper to fully observe these shaded negative spaces as shapes. Tape on backside and hang up.
Be careful not to get the students confused about positive and negative space. Concentrate on the negative space being just as much shapes as the positive. Make sure when you ask them to stare at the negative spaces that they know what stare means and they know which is the negative. Tape the pieces together that day or else they will get lost or stepped on or ripped.


Topic: Mobile Making
Materials: leaves, paint, scissors, paper (newspaper or scraps), glue, needle and thread, sticks, string, hammer, nails
Time: 3 periods
Objective: For the students to work together to make one project.
Procedure:
Day 1 Objective: To understand the function of a mobile (a balanced result of many elements of design) and to produce two identical leaf rubbings. Have students look up mobile in the dictionary. Afterwards, talk about what they think it will look like (maybe have them draw up their expectations on the board) and what it will show them (the clarification of a design). Go outside and collect a variety of leaves, on the large side. Using any available paint or local dyes mixed in water, paint the leaves using fingers or brushes. Be sure there is plenty of paint on the leaf. Take a piece of paper larger than the leaf, fold it in half, open it up again place the leaf inside face up. Fold the paper over the painted leaf and rub on the backside of the paper. Quickly, so the paint has no time to dry, open the paper, remove the leaf and fold again and rub, making a duplicate print. Let dry.
Day 2 Objective: Accomplish 3-D paper leaves. Cut out leaves leaving one half inch around figure, roll scraps of newspaper or scraps of paper into balls and put between identical leaves to form a sandwich. Glue down edges to form 3-D leaves. Dry.
Day 3 Objective: Finally construct a hanging. Find two good-sized sticks to hang the leaves from and maybe some smaller ones, depending on how many leaves you have. Design the mobile before hanging, discuss the relationships between colours, sizes, and shapes. Attach the two main sticks by crossing them and tying tightly with string. Thread needle and hang leaves from sticks in pre-tensed order. To make an more in-depth mobile, hang more sticks from the main sticks. Hang. And for extra imagination, give the mobile a human name.
Students found it exciting to make something together that helps them see what they learned through chapter 4. In this, they realised they were putting to use some of the elements of design learned in class such as texture, balance, colour, and shape. It also exposes them to the uses of paint, brushes, and materials and ideas found in nature.
Be careful not to put the wrong side of the print down when stuffing with scraps. Keep hands clean so the paint doesn’t smudge. Do not let students put chair on desk or other unsafe practice when hanging.
Topic: Picture Making
Materials: glue, scissors, magazines, rulers
Time: 5-6 periods
Objective: Build self concept. Emphasize design and locally available products. Encourage English usage and finding adjectives or words to describe themselves. Students will also practice collage.
Procedure:
1. Ask students, “Who are you?” Encourage them to use creative words, to use their imaginations. Discuss adjectives.
2. Review or introduce collage.
3. Discuss self identity and how students can choose both words and images they like from magazines. Emphasize that the colours and images they choose will tell the viewer something about them.
Evaluation: Have the students write one paragraph about themselves explaining how the collage describes them. Look at the composition of the collage.
Students will want to use scissors to cut everything. Encourage them to carefully tear edges.
Topic: Terms in art
Materials: Students will locate their own materials.
Time: 1 term
Objective: Students will become knowledgeable about one art form and be able to share their understanding with the class.
Procedure:
1. Students will work in groups of four or five people. Each group will be assigned one of the following topics: basketry, textiles, graphics, picture making, pottery, performing arts.
2. Each group should meet an artist, e.g., the textiles group could meet with a kente weaver, the graphics group could meet with a sign maker, and the performing arts group could meet a dancer or drummer. Have the artist show the group how to make the art and explain the terms from chapter 5. The group should practice the art and make examples to show the class.
3. Half way through the term, the groups should meet with the teacher to discuss the work being done.
4. Write a paper to explain the art form and ten of the terms from chapter 5. Write in your own words. DO NOT COPY from the book.
5. Class presentations: During the last week of term, the groups will present their information to the class. The group must define and explain the terms, demonstrate the art form and show examples, and be able to answer questions.
Schedule the presentations and collect papers. Can be used as a substitute for a final exam. Don’t try to do this during the first term. Work can be done outside of class.
Topic: Terms in Art

Materials: paper and pen

Time: 1 period

Objective: To introduce students to the variety and vast amount of terms used to describe techniques in all the art forms. It familiarises students with terms that could be asked on the WAEC.

Procedure: Students should have read and studied chapter 5. Divide the students into teams and have them gather closely. Have each team choose a name. One person from each team should be designated with a piece of paper and pen to record the ideas and act as spokesperson for the whole group. The teacher will act as the game host by writing the team names on the board and recording the points the team earns beneath the appropriate name. Students should understand that this is a group effort so no books. The teacher announces a topic and the group has a full minute to think of and write down as many terms on the topic as it can. For example, if the teacher chooses the topic of Picture Making, the teams discuss and write down terms such as collage, foreground, fixative, etc. The team representative can read off the answers as the teacher puts one point on the board for each correct term. The other teams do not get points for a term that has already been mentioned. The same team should not go first each round.

Students learn to brainstorm with their peers. Emphasise that this is just a game and should be fun. No prizes.


Title: Art Appreciation Topic: GKIA Materials: paper, works of art Time: 4 periods Objective: To set up a work of art and define it in four different areas.

Procedure: Place art in the middle of paper. On the top, label “Purpose”; on the left side label “Style”; on the right side, label “Iconography”; and on the bottom, label “Historical Position.” Give each student a piece of paper and define the work as follows: 1. Purpose: for doing? Work, money, politics, religion, self? 2. Style: What style was used? Cubism, realism, etc. Why was it used? 3. Historical position: Is there historical significance? 4. Iconography: Does it relate to an icon? Was it drawn, painted, etc., because of religious reasons?


Title: Composition Topic: GKIA Materials: paper, pencils Time: 1 period Objective: Students will be able to identify ways of organising information and apply this to 2-dimensional forms.

Procedure: 1. Check previous knowledge. Assume familiarity with dot, shape, line, proportion. 2. Motivation: Composition is used to organise drawings and to emphasise certain points, e.g., an arrow and the words “football field” on a sign. The arrow must point in a particular direction. It should have a certain size, relative to the words. Another example, given the words “God’s Way is Great”, how can they be arranged? Does the arrangement or size change the meaning of the message? 3. Information: Elements can be organised according to certain principles and progressions. Principles are variety, rhythm, balance, contrast, repetition, and dominance. Some progressions are light to dark, simple to complex, many to few, thick to thin. 4. Practice: Have each row of students draw a different principle—regular rhythm, irregular rhythm, contrast, repetition. 5. Have students draw a composition which employs two progressions or their antitheses. 6. Review drawings together to identify progressions.


Title: Composition Topic: GKIA Materials: two different colours of paper Objective: to practice applying the principles of design in 2D composition.

Procedure: This is not a away to teach the principles of design per se but is a way for the class to practice using the principles in simple composition and a way for you to see just where they need help. You start by taking several sheets of one colour of coloured paper and cutting them randomly into odd shapes of different sizes. Put them in a pile on a spare desk. Divide the class into small groups (2 or 3) and give each group a blank sheet of any coloured paper.

Choose one of the principles of design, e.g., balance. Each group will work together to make a composition sheet of paper using whatever cut up shapes they need. No glue is used so the design can be changed until they are satisfied. When all the groups are finished, the class walks around to each group’s composition and talks informally about what works and doesn’t work. Encourage them to talk about the work and offer advice and further explanation if you sense that they just don’t understand how to use a particular principle (it’s a lot easier to memorise a definition than it is to really understand its use). Find a way to reward those groups that use originality.

Now they can go back to the small groups and choose another principle to work with, using the same or different pieces of cut paper. The students will really be teaching each other as they work in each small group and in the larger class discussions they learn from each other by seeing others’ mistakes and accomplishments.

A game to play ... have each group make a composition illustrating one of the principles, and then the other groups have to guess which principle is used.


Title: Colour Combinations Topic: Colour Materials: sketchbook or paper, pencil, crayons or paint Objective: We use certain words to describe certain groups of colours.

Notes: COOL COLOURS contain blue or green. WARM COLOURS contain yellow or red. ANALOGOUS COLOURS contain a common colour and appear next to each other on the colour wheel. COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS are directly opposite on the colour wheel. SHADE is a colour mixed with black. TINT is a colour mixed with white.

Procedure: On a clean page in your sketchbook draw several (at least 10) double boxes at least a total of 1-1/2 inches wide and one inch tall. Colour each box with different colour combinations and see which colours look good together. Each person sees colour differently. Do you like warm colours together? Cool colours? What do complementary colours look like together?


Title: Monoprinting Topic: Printmaking Materials: pieces of glass, paint brushes, sticks, paint (you can also use printing ink or try making a mixture of flour, food colouring, and water) Time: 2 periods Objective: Students will understand how to make and be able to produce a monoprint.

Notes: Monoprinting comes from the Latin word “mono” meaning one. In other kinds of printing, the printing block can be used more than once and the same design can be reproduced multiple times. In monoprinting no two prints can be made exactly the same. The design can be used only once. More than one colour can be used, however.

Procedure: 1. Use paint to make a design or image on a piece of glass with a brush. Several colours can be used, and colours can be mixed and blended directly on the glass.

2. Use a stick to remove some of the paint. This will create white lines on the finished print. Different width sticks will make different kinds of lines.

3. Put a clean piece of paper on top of the glass. Try to center the paper.

4. Rub top of paper with your hands so the paint will transfer.

5. Lift paper and your print will appear.

When using water-based paints (gouache, tempera, or watercolour), too much water will make the colours blur. Too little water will cause the paint to dry before you have time to print.


Title: Stencilled Greeting Cards Topic: Stencils Materials: paper, blade, printing paste or paint, sponge or foam, piece of posterboard Time: 4 periods Objective: Learn the process of stencil printing and the purpose of greeting cards.

Procedure: 1. Discuss what greeting cards are for. Success cards?

2. Discuss what a stencil is. How is it useful in the printing of cards?

3. Demonstrate making a symmetrical stencil:

a. Measure paper 15 cm width x 7.5 cm height. b. Fold paper in half and crease it. c. Open it and on both sides draw a 2 cm margin all the way around. d. Fold again. e. On the side with the crease identify the three margins. f. Within the borders draw any open shape. Check that they know what an open shape is. g. Cut along the shape being careful not to cut the top or the bottom or into any margins. h. Unfold. You should have a symmetrical shape.

4. Printing: a. Cut pieces of paper 30 cm wide and 7.5 cm height. b. On a piece of wood or cardboard, use masking tape to make corners for registering the stencil and the paper. c. Dip the sponge into the printing paste. d. Sponge stenciled image onto the paper. e. Fold paper. Voila. Greeting card or success card.

It may take two or three attempts to cut a stencil properly. Be careful not to use too much paint, which will move under the stencil and ruin the print.

Topic: 3D Composition Materials: any small box (biscuits, tea, etc.) or envelopes, scissors, large decorated paper, pen, ruler, sticks, thread, needle Time: 2 periods Objective: Finding locally available objects such as packages or envelopes and figuring out how to reproduce them.

Procedure: 1. Discuss function, where to find packages or envelopes, benefits for being able to make your own (gifts, decoration, sculpture-type mobiles)

2. Carefully unglue package or envelope.

3. Choose paper large enough for unfolded package or envelope.

4. Trace the package or envelope on the back of the paper. At the places where it folds, fold back the flap and draw a dotted line.

5. Cut out the 2D design. Line up a ruler with the dotted lines and use the edge to make a crease in the paper.

6. Referring to the original package or envelope, glue the design in the appropriate places.

7. Use sticks, needle, and thread to make a mobile of boxes or envelopes.


Title: Freeform Line Drawing Topic: Elements and Principles of Design Materials: paper, pencils Time: 2 periods Objective: Getting students to relax their grip on the pencil. Get students to understand how line relates to rhythm, how lines create a variety or a repetition of shapes, and how texture added to one shape creates dominance.

Procedure: Using whole arm, students should be able to place their pencil onto the paper moving the line in any flowing direction without picking up the pencil from the paper. Overlapping the lines will form shapes. Emphasise the importance of varying degrees of pressure to get lighter and darker lines. Demonstrate the desired effects on a large piece of paper.

1. Place pencil on paper. Do not lift pencil from paper.

2. Move pencil around the paper overlapping the lines. Do not stop once you have started (10-15 min.).

3. Select areas to shade in order to add a sense of volume.

4. Students stand up in front of their desks. Each person moves to the left to view their neighbour’s work.

5. After they have viewed everyone’s work, ask one student which drawing he liked best. Why? Are there a variety of shapes? Repeated shapes?

6. Teacher demonstrates again. Choose one area to become the focal point either by adding texture or shading differently in order to create a dominant area.

7. Display works and ask students to identify line, shape, rhythm, variety, repetition, or dominance in particular drawings.


Title: The Five Senses and Contour Drawing Topic: Drawing Materials: a variety of textured objects, paper, pencils Time: 4 periods Objective: Establishing a relationship between observation and drawing.

Procedure: 1. Find a variety of objects with different textures, e.g., shells, leaves.

2. Students study objects. Teacher asks questions. How does it feel? Smell? Sound? Taste? Look?

3. Have two similar looking people stand up in front of the class and have the rest of the students compare and contrast the appearance of them. Shape of head, ears, nose, mouth, length of arms, width of shoulders.

4. Do the same for two shells or two leaves.

5. Students do two or three 10-minute contour drawings. Rules: a. Do not remove pencil from the paper. b. Do not erase. c. Go slowly. d. Keep your eyes on the object. You are recording information. e. Vary the pressure of your pencil. f. Do not stop and start. Move the pencil in a continuous line.

6. Display. Verbally reward those who have followed the rules.

Exercise must be repeated before the students figure out what is expected of them. With repeated exercises and critiques, the students will gain confidence slowly. If they cannot stop erasing, make them use pens or markers. If the class is large and cannot follow the rules, put them in pairs and while one is drawing their partner should check off the rules they’ve broken.


Title: More Continuous Line Topic: Drawing Materials: objects for still life, pencils, paper Time: 2 periods Objective: Practice contour drawing with a variety of arranged objects.

Procedure: Demonstration a. Identify the starting point with a red dot on one of the objects. This is where they will begin drawing. b. Exaggerate following the rules. c. Explain hand and eye coordination as their eyes inch along the contour at the same speed as the hand is moving. Imagine the red dot moving along the contour slowly.

Practical a. Depending on the size of the class, students work in groups. b. Identify those who understand contour drawing as the group leaders. c. Set up a still life for each group. d. Start them on 10-15 minute drawings. e. Do a final 20-25 minute drawing for a grade. f. Display. Verbally reward. If they can handle it, offer criticism.

Try to get them to look at the still life as one object first of all. If necessary, use a piece of white tape to outline the perimeter of the still life. Concentration is a big problem. Eliminate all talking. Although each student will have a different perspective on the still life and therefore a different drawing, some will copy their neighbour’s work, especially if you have given praise to the neighbour. Wait until the display to make any comments.


Title: The Human Body Topic: Drawing/Proportion Materials: paper (sketchbooks), 2H and 2B pencils Time: 4 periods Handout: photocopies of the skeletons and the muscles Objective: Find proportion and form in drawing the human body. The human body can be broken into a grid for measuring accuracy.

Procedure: 1. Making the first line. With 2H pencil draw a line down the paper where you plan to draw. This should be aligned with the spine and extend throughout the length of the imagined figure. The body is symmetrical (for the most part) so this line should divide the body neatly down the middle.

2. Draw a rectangle where the first line dissects the rectangle evenly. The rectangle shouldn’t be much wider than you anticipate the figure to be.

3. Break up space. Divide the rectangle into important parts. In teaching I have the students draw lines at the chin, shoulders, waist, hips, knees, and ankles rather than go by the seven-head method in General Knowledge in Art.

4. Have students feel under their skin for bones, joints, and muscles.

5. Break up the parts of the body into geometrical shapes using the 2H pencil, e.g., head = a square.

6. Mark off where the body bends.

7. Sketch the basic muscles as seen in the handout that stretch across the bones. Neck muscles, shoulder muscles, hips, thighs, and calves.

8. Use the 2B pencil to draw over the shapes to clearly mark the outline of the body.

Homework: practice, practice, practice.

Using both pencils is important because if initial lines are too dark they will dominate the drawing. At first the drawings look cartoon-like but proportion is the key.


Title: Lettering/Package Design Topic: Materials: cardboard boxes, knife or razor blades, scissors, rulers, glue, tempera paint Time: 2-3 weeks Objective: Students will put into practice the lettering techniques they have previously learned by designing a logo for a product as well as construct a 3D container for that product.

Procedure: 1. Students will pick names of products from a hat (toothpaste, oats, soap, hair dye, etc.). Discuss the general shape of the object. Homework: find out the exact size of that object in height, length, and width.

2. Discuss how to make a box. Do an example. Have the students use the measurements of their product to design a box best suited for it. It should be measured and drawn directly onto the cardboard.

3. The cardboard shape should then be cut out, scored where necessary, and the sides glued into place so that it becomes a box.

4. Students should create their own product name and do a coloured drawing of it, including a style of lettering. This should be drawn on the box and painted in tempera paint.

The finished package design should be suitable for the product and creativity should be evident in the logo design and box construction. Lettering should be done correctly.


Title: West African Art Topic: Indigenous African Art Materials: Maps of West Africa showing the locations of the ethnic groups, photographs, and small cards with the names of the ethnic groups on them. Tape or glue. Time: 2 periods Objective: Identify various ethnic groups and their arts. Understand the concept that art is the mouthpiece of the cultures producing it.

Procedure: 1. Make a list of the countries of West Africa and their ethnic groups. Discuss with students.

2. Use the map to demonstrate the locations of the groups.

3. Draw a second map on the board and call students to pick and paste the small cards of ethnic groups on the map. Repeat several times.

4. Show sample photos.

5. Discuss their philosophy, influence, materials used, style, and aesthetic values. Use the Akuaba or the Chi-wara mask to explain.


Title: Art Forms and Their Functions Topic: GKIA Materials: textbook and photographs Time: 1 period Objective: To understand the uses of art in society and to value the subject they are studying.

Procedure: 1. Let students mention the areas that art plays a role in.

2. Take each role and let the students come out with examples and their functions.

3. Use the text and discuss with students according to groupings.

4. Assign students to compile a table indicating art forms and artefacts in specific areas.

Field trips are a good way to familiarize students with artefacts such as linguist staffs, stools, and fertility dolls. Procedure 4 could be done after a field trip. Students may not be able to discuss the roles easily so guide them into discussions on hair styles as art, weaving, etc.

Title: Children’s Books Topic: Bookmaking Materials: cartridge paper, posterboard, needle and thread, pencils, rulers, felt pens Time: 6-8 periods Objective: Learn how to make books for children.

Procedure: 1. Why is it important for people to be able to read? Examples of children’s stories. Students share some stories. Homework: students write down their stories.

2. Practicing for the dummy. a. Fold pieces of paper into leaves. b. Measure the entire page space. c. In sketchbook draw rectangles with the same measurement to practice writing the story. d. Make 2 cm margins and rule lines across the paper. e. Neatly print the story. f. Homework: Practice drawing illustrations to complement the text.

3. Putting the books together. There should be enough pages for the written text, illustrations, a title page, and a blank page between the title page and the first page of the story. Also fold and cut a piece of cartridge paper for the cover. Lightly pencil what each page is for, e.g., write “title page,” “blank page,” “illustration” on the pages of the book. a. Draw margins on the dummy. b. Rule lines for the text. c. Write out the story and title page. d. Punch an odd number of holes, evenly spaced, in the spine. d. Thread needle and come in through the middle hole. e. Leave an inch or two after the knot. f. Move up through the holes in an “S” motion. g. Move down coming through the holes on the opposite side moving in a figure 8. h. Move down and come up again. i. Tie off.


Title: Collaborative Drawing Topic: group cooperation, drawing, composition Materials: 1 sheet of paper per person, drawing materials Time: 1-2 periods Objective: Students will learn to collaborate and understand the evolution of creating a piece of artwork. They may also learn about composition and colour.

Procedure: 1. Give each student and yourself a piece of paper and drawing utensil. Each student should put his name on the back side.

2. Make a drawing of anything at all. Restrict the drawings to shapes and lines, no words. Work for 3-5 minutes (time them).

3. Pass the paper to the person on your left.

4. Draw on the new paper, adding to the drawing that someone else began. Work 3-5 minutes.

5. Continue with this procedure until the drawing with your name on it comes back to you. Each student will contribute to all the other drawings.


Title: Collaborative Book Topic: layout, design, lettering, composition, cooperation Materials: 1 sheet of paper per person, drawing materials Time: 4-10 periods Objective: Students will practice writing, drawing, composition, and layout design. Students will see the benefit of creative collaboration, see the evolution of a book, and see a completed storybook.

Procedure: 1. Begin by telling a story. The teacher can begin by saying “Once upon a time...”

2. Each student must continue the story by adding a few sentences. Go around the room until every student has told a part of a story.

3. In exercise books each student should write down his part of the story and make a preliminary sketch of it.

4. Each student should make two or three small layout sketches to show where the words will appear on the page and where the image will appear.

5. Students will choose one layout design to produce on a finished scale.

6. Give each student paper and fold into three parts: two parts will be the same size and the third part will be one-inch wide (right edge of paper). Students will use the two big parts to make their illustrations.

7. When students finish their drawings and writing, collect all pages. Check spelling and grammar.

8. Show students how to assemble the pages using an accordion format. Glue the one-inch strip to the back of the next page until all the pages are connected.

9. Students who finish early can work in a group to make a title page. Be sure to include the names of all the authors and artists.

10. Make hard covers for an accordion book.

11. Glue the first and last pages of your book onto the hard covers. You can use a ribbon to tie it closed.


Title: Chalkboard Drawings Topic: Drawing Materials: chalk and chalkboard Time: 1 week per group Objective: Students will work collaboratively and learn how to work on a large scale.

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups.

2. Each group is assigned one week in the term to make a drawing. You can either allow the students complete freedom to create directly on the board or you can teach them how to use a grid to transfer a small drawing to a larger scale. You can combine the project with any topic in the syllabus that you are studying (landscape drawing, figure drawing, perspective, design, abstract art, African art, etc.)

3. Give the group coloured chalk at the beginning of the week.

4. For that week students will draw a mural on the chalkboard. They can do this before or after school or during a free period.

5. Work should remain on the board for the duration of the week for the class to see and critique.

Title: Murals Topic: Drawing Materials: chalk, brushes, emulsion paint (indoors), oil-based paint (outdoors) Time: 1 term Objective: Students will learn to create a realistic copy of a work of art (their own or someone else’s) and scale it up or down in the correct proportions.

Procedure: 1. Discuss creating a grid and how to scale it up or down in size. Teacher should create a grid over a magazine photo and cut up grid squares, giving each student a square to illustrate for homework. Once finished, collect and tape squares in the correct order on the blackboard for students to see picture as a whole. Give definitions related to mural painting (grid, scale, fresco, underpainting, etc.) and a brief history with various reasons for doing murals (prehistoric cave paintings = record daily life, Michelangelo = forced to do it, Diego Rivera = political commentary).

2. Students should do three sketches based on a theme you have chosen (adinkra, animals, festivals). They should choose the best sketch and then do a final drawing in colour. Have a class critique and vote on the most appropriate one.

3. This drawing should be divided into a grid.

4. Students should clean the surface of a wall and draw a grid with chalk to the desired size.

5. Students can begin filling in grid blocks with the drawing. Assign each student a section of the mural (1, 2, or 3 blocks). When finished, the teacher should check it for accuracy and painting. Can be used as a final exam.


Title: Abstract Composition Topic: Composition Materials: paper or posterboard, enamel paint, petrol, mosquito spray pump and three canisters, various 3-D objects Time: 1-2 periods Objective: Experiment with a variety of objects to create an abstract composition.

Procedure: 1. Discuss what is art? Representational art vs. abstract art?

2. Place objects on paper.

3. Take a mosquito spray pump and two or three screw-on canisters. Use petrol to dilute the paint. Put different colours into different canisters and add the petrol to each canister so you can just screw one on, spray, and then change canisters to spray another colour. If the paint is too thick, it won’t spray. Add more petrol.

4. Take the pump and spray the first colour onto the paper.

5. Rearrange the objects and spray the second colour.

6. Rearrange and spray the third colour.

Topic: Bookmaking Materials: cassava starch, cardboard, fabric scraps, paper Objective: Books are a good project to do with any level class because it combines manual skills, analytical thought, and creativity. And each student can take home a finished product which can be used throughout the term.

Procedure: For beginning students try making a single section sewn book. Then use it for homework and class assignments on drawing, design, and composition lessons. Have them fill the book with drawings for the end of the term..

For intermediate and advanced students try making hardbound sketchbooks at the beginning of the term. Then use it for all classwork and homework assignments. Or just assign that they fill the book by the end of the term. If art supplies are scarce, use local materials. Each student can bring cassava starch for glue, cardboard from old boxes, and scrap fabric for book cloth. If paper is a problem, get memos from the Peace Corps office and the students can draw on the blank side of the paper and collage or paint over the typed side.

Here are some ideas for filling sketchbooks. Drawings: design elements (line, shape, and texture), places/landscape, perspective, imaginary place, animals, self-portrait (now, at age 5, and at age 80), family members, abstract, moving objects, still life

Collage/Mixed Media: magazines, newspapers, fabric, drawings, found objects (leaves, flowers, candy wrappers, etc.), cutting into paper, sewing onto paper

Make Your Own Materials: colours from food colouring, spices, etc.; sticks to apply ink


Title: Storybooks Topic: Bookmaking Materials: Objective: For advanced students, making books with writing and illustration is a good way to teach about layout design, lettering, drawing, and colour. You can also collaborate with teachers from other subjects. For example, English students writing poetry could illustrate them. Home Economics students could make a book showing different food groups and their importance. Biology students could make a book showing how the digestive system works. History students could make a book to illustrate an important historical event.

Beginning students, flutter books that use only one piece of paper is a simple way to make a storybook. For advanced students, try making a hardbound accordion book. This is a good format because you don’t need to pre-determine the page layout. With sewn books you have to know the number of pages before you sew the book together.

Some ideas for storybooks: illustrate a Ghanaian fable or story, write a story about an animal, write a story about growing up; illustrate your daily activities, make a book of different places or different countries, choose a historic event to explain and illustrate, show the stages of growth (of a plant, animal, person, etc.), create a book of symbols, choose an object and explain the different types (kinds of flowers, foods, cars, animals, houses, etc.), write an imaginary story about someone your age in another place, a progressive story (go around the room to create a story)


Title: Making a Portfolio Topic: Construction and Assemblage Materials: large manila card, ruler, scissors/blade, glue Time: 2 periods Objective: Provide students with a large envelope to keep their work together and to keep their work from getting dirty.

Procedure: 1. With a ruler, divide the manila card into three parts: two equal parts and one part measuring half of one of the other parts, e.g., 30 cm, 30 cm, 15 cm. Exact measurement is very important.

2. Draw dotted lines where the portfolio will fold.

3. Draw dotted lines where the portfolio should be glued together.

4. Cut out along the outline.

5. Glue together at sides and let dry.


Title: Making a Scrapbook Topic: Bookmaking Materials: old magazines/newspaper, glue, paper, needle, thread, scissors/blade, stapler Time: 2 periods Objective: Students will make a reference which can be used for any art project to enhance creativity.

1. Discuss the importance of making a scrapbook.

2. Cut large paper into sheets for making pages in a book.

3. Sew the sheets of paper together at the side using stab binding.

4. Cut interesting pictures out of magazines which will show examples of lettering styles, shapes, design, or colour arrangements.

5. Glue the pictures onto the pages with an explanation of each one.


Title: Papermaking Topic: Papermaking Materials: recycled paper torn into small pieces, fufu pounder, bucket, large plastic tub or metal bowl, 2 yds interfacing (ask a seamstress)/towel/calico, sponges/foam, rectangular wooden frame or 4 pieces of wood, mosquito screening, hammer, nails, glue Time: 4-10 periods Objective: Students will understand how to make paper and be able to produce paper to use for other class projects.

Making the frame: 1. Nail and glue four strips of wood together to make a simple rectangular frame. Your finished paper will be the size of this frame.

2. Cover the frame with mosquito screening. Pull the screen tight and staple or nail it to the sides of the frame. This is just like stretching a canvas. You can try reinforcing this with glue or duct tape.

Preparing the paper pulp: 1. Tear scrap paper into small pieces.

2. Place paper in a bucket, pour boiling water over it, and allow it to soak overnight.

3. Put a handful of paper into the fufu pounder with a little water and pound into a pasty pulp. Bits of paper should be very small.

4. Pour this pulp into the tub and add water.

5. Continue this process until tub is 1/2 full with water and 1 inch thick with pulp.

Making the sheet of paper: 1. Cut the interfacing into sheets slightly larger than the frame.

2. Stir the paper pulp with your hand so it is evenly dispersed in water.

3. Dip frame deep into tub with the screen remaining horizontal and facing the sky.

4. Lift the frame up. Paper pulp will settle on the screen. Allow excess water to drip off.

5. Turn the frame over onto a piece of interfacing so the pulp transfers to the interfacing. Use a sponge to press the back of the screen, removing excess water from the paper pulp. Squeeze sponge dry and continue until most of the water is removed.

6. Remove screen. Paper pulp will stick to the interfacing and be very flat and thin like a wet piece of paper.

7. Continue this whole process to make several sheets of paper. You can stack pieces of interfacing onto one another and allow the paper to dry partially. Then place the paper under a stack of books or a cement block so they will dry flat.

Options: Lots of things can be added to the paper pulp to change its look and feel. Any organic material (leaves, grasses, flowers, onion skins, spices, etc.) can be added to the paper pulp, either in the tub or on the frame. You can also add threads, small fabric scraps, coloured paper, newspaper, food wrappers, etc., to make decorative paper. If you want to make coloured paper, experiment by adding paint, food colouring, or using only coloured paper for the pulp.

This project can get messy, wet, and chaotic. Have students work together in pairs or groups. One group can be pounding paper pulp while another group forms sheets of paper.


Title: Papier Mâché Masks Topic: Sculpture/Using Moulds Materials: newspaper or cement bag paper, masking tape, cassava starch, pot and heat source, plastic bowls for moulds, tempera paint, strips of cloth, hair, feathers, sticks, etc. Objective: The student will learn a type of sculpture using papier mâché as a means of self expression through masks.

Procedure: 1. Boil cassava and water in a pot over heat source (coal pot, gas fire, etc.) until thick. When cooled, add water to thin it out into a paste.

2. Tear newspaper/cement bags into strips.

3. Dip strips into paste and lay over plastic bowl until it is completely covered. Do three or four layers. Let dry completely and then remove from mould.

4. Now “building” can begin. This is when students begin to wad up paper and tape it to the surface to create protrusions such as brow, lips, ears, horns, etc. Layers of wet paper should be wrapped around the protrusions, inserting hair, feathers, etc., at this time. The masks should creatively convey a feeling or emotion (evil, happy, sad, etc.). Paint when dry.

5. Tie strips of cloth onto the sides of the mask so that the students may tie on his/her head.


Title: Class Mobile Topic: Materials: paper, colours, thread, twigs Time: 5-6 periods Objective: Students will learn how to fold origami balls and will learn balance, how to follow directions, and how to work as a class.

Procedure: 1. Discuss adjectives and have the class give a few examples. Then have them write 10 each to describe themselves.

2. Introduce mobiles and origami.

3. Teach them to fold origami balls. Practice.

4. Have each student fold a ball. They should write their adjective list on the ball.

5. Affix balls to mobile and hang.


Title: Illustration/Appliqué Topic: Materials: scraps of cloth, backing (flour sacks), thread, buttons, needles, straight pins, paper Time: 1 term Objective: Students will learn to use drawings and appliqué as a form of communication. Students will also learn about appliqué and its uses in local cultures and improve English comprehension skills.

Procedure: 1. For the first two months of the term, discuss narrative art and storytelling with pictures. Do word association drawings. Have students pick words from a hat (dance, farming, Christmas, Ramadan, etc.) and then ask them to illustrate that word. Have the students create a story as a class (you begin the story and each student adds to it until the last student creates the ending) and illustrate the part he/she created. Have the students illustrate a local folktale, such as “Anansi,” which you can read to them or invite an elder in to tell them. Discuss appliqué and how it’s used in local cultures (Fante Asafo flags, Benin’s Abomey Kingdom). There is a photo of appliqué cloth on page 30 of GKIA.

2. For the last month of the term and as a final exam, read a local folktale.

3. Students are asked to break down the story into its most significant parts while noting details (such as “Anansi was wearing a hat and carrying a cane.”) as you write them on the board. Then eliminate or add from those parts so that the story has been broken into parts that correspond to the number of students. Assign each student a part of the story.

4. Students should do three sketches of their part of the story for homework and choose the one that they feel best illustrates the story.

5. Discuss stencils and have students cut their stencils from paper and pin to the cloth of their choice. Then they will cut out the actual shapes from the cloth.

6. Begin sewing cut-out cloth to cloth squares (cut from flour sacks). When finished, the squares can be sewn together as one full piece.


Title: Mosaic Topic: Materials: cement, heavy paper, tesserae (broken tile, shells, stones, broken coloured glass) Time: 2-3 weeks Objective: The student will learn a form of art which might later be used as a means of income when finishing school.

Procedure: 1. Students should do three sketches of designs which are appropriate for the place in which the mosaic will be located. In my case, it was a step leading into the doorway of the artroom so the designs were related to art, learning, and change.

2. The class has a critique where they choose the best design(s) and then divide into groups that will work on developing each design.

3. The students cut a negative stencil of their design from heavy paper and lay it on a flat board. Their choices in tesserae are made and then laid into the stencil to see if the design will work.

4. The cement is mixed and poured and, if necessary, allowed to dry until soft (not mushy) to the touch. If your school has students who do practicals in this, it helps a lot. Otherwise, you will need to get an instructor or volunteer in town who can help the students mix the cement properly.

5. Students lay their stencils onto the wet cement and begin packing their pre-arranged tesserae into it. Students must work quickly! If the cement begins to grow too hard, sprinkling extra water on the cement helps (and has to be done anyway to help it set properly). Don’t do this in the rainy season.


Title: Painting Plywood Panels Topic: Lettering Materials: plywood pieces (20 cm x 30 cm), white enamel paint, brushes, pencils, paint Objective: Students will learn practical skills.

1. Have students coat both sides of plywood with white enamel paint.

2. Brainstorm various sayings such as “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” Students should choose a saying.

3. Students should design their plywood panels in their sketchbooks. Draw 10 cm x 15 cm rectangles in sketchbook, dividing the space into how many lines their saying will take. The simpler the design, the better.

4. Choose an appropriate image to design along the panel’s perimeter or open areas, e.g., a set of footprints or flowers. Cut out a stencil to trace the design easily onto the plywood.

5. With a pencil, sketch the lettering onto the plywood (cursive is easy). Trace stencils.

6. Mix colours, if necessary, and paint.

Art Project Ideas

1. Brainstorming 2. Picture Making Painting Drawing Printmaking Cutting and Pasting 3. Weaving and Stitching 4. Modelling, Casting, and Carving 5. Construction and Assemblage 6. Fabric and Leather Decoration 7. Performance


Brainstorming

The following is a list to give to students at the beginning of each term to help them find ways to develop their sketches and drawings. Try it larger. Try it smaller. Repeat it. Make it black and white. Shadow it. Put it away and look at it later. Look at it in a mirror. Make it pretty. Make it bold and tough. Fill it up. Empty it. Use more white space. Use some lines. Use a border. Go over the edge. Reverse it. Emphasize it. Condense it. Use a drawing. Use a photo. Use a symbol. Make the type bigger. Make the type smaller. Cut it up and rearrange it. Add a texture. Do it freehand. Try something you like. Try something you dislike. Be conservative. Be formal. Be wild. Be funny. Be silly. Make it gray. Connect the elements. Add a background. Tack it up on the wall. Look at it upside down. Add more colour. Add variety. Make it off balance. Give it rhythm.


Picture Making

Painting A table top or floor with newspaper spread out works as well as an easel. Try painting on newspaper for interesting effect. If powdered tempera is used, add liquid starch when mixing for smoother paint.

Group Mural. Use brown wrapping paper. Best to limit to five or six children while rest of class is doing something else or divide whole class into small groups to work on separate murals.

Sectional Group Mural. Plan mural and sketch full scale on brown wrapping paper. Cut into sections and have each child paint one section at his desk. Assemble when finished.

Watercolour Painting. On dry paper, on wet paper, in combination with India ink. Good project for learning to mix colours.

Coloured India Inks. Give vivid watercolour effects.

Encaustic Painting. Melt crayon stubs in tin cans. May make stove from 100-watt lightbulb under an empty tin can with holes cut in top. Or hold candle in one hand, heat crayon, and draw while hot, reheating as necessary. Or hold candle to crayon and allow wax to drip onto paper, painting picture drop by drop until entire surface of paper is covered.

Tempera Batik. On rough-surface watercolour paper, paint picture with thick tempera paint, leaving many areas of unpainted paper. When thoroughly dry, cover whole painting with black India ink. After ink is dry, put under running water and rub with fingers until desired effect is achieved.

Fingerpainting. Best for young children.

Sponge Painting. Instead of a brush, paint with a small piece of sponge. Also, try painting a picture with an old toothbrush, shaving brush, or whisk broom.

Painting on Corrugated Paper. Ripple surface adds interest.

Relief Painting. Use texture-type wall paint to build up textured areas up to half-inch thickness on hard surface such as masonite. Then paint with tempera paints in desired colours. This works well for relief maps.

Crayon resist. Thinned black tempera over wax crayon drawing. Paint will not adhere to wax marks. Or use watercolours instead of tempera.

Rubber Cement Resist. Brush rubber cement on paper to make design. Paint with watercolours. Pull off rubber cement.

Candle Wax Resist. Draw with a lighted candle by dripping wax on paper and smearing immediately with unlighted end of candle. Then paint paper with thinned tempera.

Spatter Painting. Use an old toothbrush and tempera paint. Rub toothbrush over a piece of screening or draw stick toward you across bristles. May use with or without stencils.

String painting. Dip string in tempera paint and lay onto clean paper to form design. Cover with paper and press. Pull extended ends of string for blurred effect. Use several colours, each printed separately.

Painting with Printing Brayer. Roll brayer into coloured printing inks and roll directly onto paper. May use loose sheets of paper to lay on as stencil to block out areas. May tie a string around brayer before rolling in ink to give interesting texture. Use several different colours on roller at same time.

Crayon Shavings on Paper. Crayon stubs separated by colour, grated with a vegetable grater, sprinkled on paper or cloth, covered with newsprint, then pressed with hot iron.

Drawing Self Portraits. From memory, or older students may use small mirror to refer to themselves.

Figure Drawing. Students take turns posing for each other. Short five-minute poses best. Costumes may be used to dress up in for added interest.

Still Life. Set-ups using bottles, vegetables, stuffed dolls, and other inanimate objects (not recommended below nine years of age).

Live Animals. Pets (rabbits, kittens) or school farm (chickens, goats) make good models. Sketching trip to zoo or natural history museum.

Outdoor Sketching. Pencil and watercolour work well. Sketches may be worked up later in class (not recommended below nine years of age).

Contour Drawing. Line drawing of outer edges of subject. Usually made by looking at object being drawn and not looking at paper.

Gesture Drawing. Rapid drawing made by not lifting pencil from paper. Quick scribbles to catch motion of figure.

Silhouette Drawing. Heavy strokes with side of crayon to capture mass of object drawn.

Opposite Hand. Try drawing with the nondominant hand.

Try many materials. Pencil, charcoal, black crayon, pen and ink, brush and ink, felt-tip pen, matchstick and ink, pipe cleaner and ink, old lipstick tubes, etc.

India Ink on Wet Paper. Tilt and turn paper so ink can run and “move out.”

Crayon Drawing. Large kindergarten crayons are best for all ages. Remove paper from crayon and break before using for greater freedom of use.

Scratchboard. Use commercial scratchboard paper or make your own by painting “building white” (a mixture of shiting and fisher glue) over a sheet of masonite or cardboard. Cover with India ink and scratch through in the usual way. Try a piece of broken hacksaw blade for texture.

Crayon Engraving (Etching). Crayon coloured heavily over the entire surface of paper, dusted with talcum powder, then painted with black tempera and drawing scratched through. May use needle to scratch design.

Crayon Tracing Paper Drawings. Colour a piece of tracing paper all over heavily with wax crayon. Using the tracing paper, place it over good paper and draw a fine-line drawing. Many different coloured sheets may be used.

Crayon Rubbing. Cut shapes of paper, burlap, screen wire, string, paper clips, rubber jar rings, rubber bands, etc., and place under paper to form design or picture. Rub with flat side of crayon.

Texture Rubbing. Draw certain parts of drawing directly and make rubbings of prominently textured objects in certain areas (rough-grained wood, stucco walls, screen wire, hardware cloth, burlap, etc.).

Chalk. Can be used to make wall murals or floor drawings. Works nicely on cement. Try to find coloured chalk.

Flour paste. Can be put into baggies and squeezed onto the surface of cloth or paper. Let dry in the sun and then paint dye or colours on the surface. Then flake off the flour and see the design. Flour acts as a resist.


Printmaking Linoleum Block Printing. Battleship linoleum works best. Design may be cut with a razor blade or linoleum cutting tool. White lines on black or vice versa. Very young children can cut block by pounding design into linoleum with hammer and nail. Linoleum cuts more easily if heated. Water-based or oil-based inks are available.

Woodcut. Using soft, even-grained wood.

Scrap Wood and Spool Printings. Blocks of different sizes and shapes and empty spools are painted with tempera and pressed onto paper.

Vegetable and Fruit Printing. Potatoes, carrots, celery, okra, apples.

Printing with Kitchen Hardware and Miscellaneous Objects. Cookie cutters, potato mashers, forks, spring-type egg beaters, metal hinges, L braces, bottle caps, seashells.

Artgum Printing. Cut motif for repeated design.

Sponge Printing. Cut sponge into geometric shapes, press into paint, and stamp onto paper.

Eraser Mosaic. Paint a picture by stamping successive dots with the small round eraser on the end of a pencil. Use thin layer of tempera paint in lid as stamp pad. Try stamping on dark-coloured paper. May cut eraser into triangle or square shape for variety.

Inner Tube and String Printing. Pieces cut from any inner tube and glued onto cardboard backing for solid areas. String glued on for lines. Ink and print like linoleum block.

Texture Printing. Paint textured objects (corrugated paper, sponge, cork, burlap, etc.) and press onto paper to print.

Monotype/Print. Honey and glycerine recipe combined with tempera. Small amount of monotype medium is added to each of the colours of tempera paint before painting. Painting is done on a sheet of glass (or plastic or metal). First coat glass with medium, then paint picture on the glass, and before it is dry, place sheet of paper on painting surface, and pull the print. Tissue or rice paper is the best. Newsprint may be used.

Vaseline Print. Mix powdered tempera with Vaseline. Bray out on masonite or glass. Place paper directly on ink surface and draw design on back of paper with tongue depressor. Line will appear darker where drawing has been made but whole paper will have textured surface from contact with Vaseline ink.

Glass Lithograph. Draw on glass with candlewax. Moisten glass with sponge. Roll oil-based ink over glass. Lay paper on glass and pull print.

Silk Screen Printing. For frame, use old wooden picture frame, embroidery hoop, or man’s cardboard shirt box (cut out center of box about one inch from edges). Stretch cheap organdy across opening and around sides. Tape well with brown paper tape. Shellac taped area heavily to waterproof. Cut stencil from mimeograph stencil or wax paper or use glue blockout solution. Small window squeegee or tongue depressor may be used.

Photogram. Lay objects on photographic contact paper to form design. Expose to light and develop.

Duco Cement Printing. Drool Duco cement onto glass to make a design. Ink entire glass and pull print.

Leaf Print. Ink back of leaf (vein side) or feather and press onto paper. Plan placement and colours.

Stenciling. Stencils with holes or stencils made from cut-out pieces of paper laid on top of paper. Paint by using brush or spatter painting.

Printed Fabrics. Print by stenciling, block printing, silk screening, artgum printing, etc. Print materials for clothing, curtains.

Greeting Cards. Plan and reproduce designs in quantity.

Group Calendar. Whole class may block prints for a group calendar project and print complete set for each member of the class.

Printed Signs. Use type cut from artgum erasers or small pieces of linoleum blocks mounted on wood. Cut in reverse.

Cutting and Pasting Cut Paper Pictures. Use coloured construction paper, paste, and scissors/razors.

Torn Paper Pictures. (“Let’s pretend we lost our scissors.”) Use coloured construction paper and paste.

Photo Montage. Composite paste-up of photographs clipped from magazines. Follow certain theme. Arrange and overlap to form design. Lettering may be used if it is part of the design.

Coloured Yarns Pasted on Paper. Combines well with chalk as background.

Mosaic Tile. Using bits of coloured glass, pebbles, etc., choose small cardboard box of desired size. Plan design in bottom of box. Attach each piece lightly to bottom of box with paste. Pour plaster over. When dry, tear box apart, remove tile, and clean off paste. Or tesserae of uniform thickness may be glued to masonite background with tile cement, then the cracks filled with grout. Excess wiped off.

Corn mosaic. Using kernels of coloured Indian corn, glue onto cardboard with Duco cement or set in plaster of Paris. Also, try buttons.

Paper Mosaic. Using bits of cut paper. Try various papers, including metallic paper, sandpaper, corrugated, graph, lined music score sheets, etc.

Torn Paper Mosaic. Tear small colour swatches from magazine ads and use to paste up a picture. Overlapping torn edges and similar colour tones.

Paper Bag Masks. Decorate with paint, crayon, cut paper, collage materials, etc.

Paper Plate Masks. Holes cut out for eyes and nose, then painted.

Posters. Use cut paper letters or letters clipped from magazines.

Weaving and Stitchery

Creative Embroidery. Coloured yarns on burlap. Wall hanging.

Weaving on a Cardboard Loom. Circle cut from cardboard with hole in center and notches all around. Or notches cut on sides on cardboard and warp wrapped around.

Weaving on Board with Nails.

Spool Weaving. Nails pounded in one end of spool.

Modelling, Casting, and Carving

Clay Pottery. Pinch pots, coil methods, slab method, wheel throwing.

Plaster Casting. Over plasticine model. Borax may be added to plaster of Paris to slow down drying time, if desired. Mixing with warm water will speed up drying time. NEVER pour excess plaster down sink drain.

Clay Masks. Actual size or much smaller. Use both hands simultaneously to model.

Sawdust Modeling Mixture. Add prepared wheat paste to sawdust, mix until the consistency of clay. Can also be used to make beads. Can be painted when dry.

Flour-Salt Modeling Mixture. One part flour and one part salt. Add water and mix well until the consistency of clay. Can use cornstarch instead of flour.

Papier Mâché Pulp. Soak small pieces of torn paper in water overnight. Drain and mix with wallpaper paste (or equivalent) to form pulp paste. Press into shapes or use a mould coated lightly with Vaseline.

Papier Mâché Strips. Dip torn newspaper strips in paste and layer over mould (mask, bowl, balloon, balled-up newspaper, etc.). Use five or six layers. Alternate layers of white newspaper with coloured comics to determine when each layer is completely covered. Remove mould when paper is dry.

Hand Puppets from Papier Mâché Strips. Make mould of head from clay, sawdust modeling mixture, balled-up paper, etc. Layer narrow strips dipped in wallpaper paste or equivalent over mould (first layer dipped in water only). Five or six layers dipped in paste and spread smoothly over mould. When dry, remove mould by cutting around form with razor blade to make two halves. Remove mould and reattach shells with paper strips inside and out.

Shadow Puppets. Cut silhouettes performing behind sheet and in front of strong light.

Wood Carving. Use wood chisels or pocket knife. Balsa wood and basswood are very soft.

Soft Stone Carving. Sandstone, soapstone, limestone, and alabaster are soft enough to be workable with older children. Use stone cutting chisels and a bush hammer.

Salt Block Carving. Use stone chisels. Design must be planned around central hole.

Clay Block Carving. Prepare blocks of clay by wedging well, packing firmly, and drying slowly. Carve with old knife or plaster tools.

Wax Carving. Pour melted wax into paper milk carton mould. Carve when cool.

Cinderblock or Insulation Brick Carving. These prepared building materials are all soft enough to carve easily.

Plaster of Paris Carving. Pour into cardboard box mould and carve when dry. Mix sand with plaster for interesting texture.

Dirt and Plaster Carving. Sift common dirt and add equal amount of moulding plaster. Mix thoroughly while dry. Slowly add equal amount of water and pour into cardboard box mould. In half an hour it is ready to be carved with pocket knife.

Vermiculite and Cement. Pour a mixture of water and two parts vermiculite to one part Portland cement into a shellacked cardboard box.

Vermiculite and Plaster of Paris. Pour a mixture of water and three parts vermiculite to one part plaster of Paris into a shellacked cardboard box.


Construction and Assemblage

Bookbinding. Sewn, Japanese, accordion bindings. Portfolio. Journals.

Wire Sculpture. Drawing with wire. Assorted sizes and colours; copper wire, aluminum wire, brass wire, covered electric wire, etc. Aluminum clothesline wire, TV wire, and stovepipe wire. Coil around pencil for spiral effect.

Cardboard Sculpture. Flat planes painted different colours intersecting each other.

Toothpick Construction. Coloured toothpicks, small dowels, sucker sticks, balloon sticks, tinker-toy parts, pick-up sticks, drinking straws may also be used. Use quick-drying model airplane glue. Or dried peas soaked in water (they tighten as they dry).

Stabiles from Toothpicks and Clay.

Scrap Material Construction.

Wood Block Construction. From scraps and odd pieces of wood. Models for modern buildings, animals, birds, people, stage-set designs, children’s toys, abstract designs, etc.

Balsa Wood Construction. Glued together with model airplane glue.

Wire and Cork Construction. Corks may be painted.

Cork and Pipe Cleaner Animals. Use corks of various sizes and pipe cleaners of different colours. Try imaginary animals.

Mobiles. Sculpture that moves. Abstract shapes, fish, acrobats, planetary subjects (sun, moon, stars, planets). May also use mobile idea to make mobile signs—lettering on free form shapes hung as a mobile. Christmas mobile.

Volume Construction with Strings. Twine dipped in plaster of Paris and wrapped around inflated balloons. When dry. balloons are deflated and removed.

Box Creatures. Make animals (real or imaginary), cars, furniture, buildings, etc., by assembling various sizes of boxes and painting them. Use empty cereal boxes, tinfoil pie plates, cardboard mailing tubes, etc.

Architectural Scale Models. After their own designs.

Creative Christmas Ornaments. Using paper, wood, wire, sheet metal, plastic, ping pong balls, blown egg shells.

Kites. Make and decorate. Use wood slats, split bamboo, Japanese paper, tissue paper, etc., to make flat kites, box kites, fish kites.

Fabric and Leather Decoration

Batik. Wax resist painted on cloth before dying. Cold water dyes must be used. When dry, remove wax by covering fabric with blotters or newsprint and pressing with warm iron or by dipping cloth into boiling water to dewax.

Tie-and-Dye. Design on cloth planned by tying areas tightly with rope/twine before dyeing.

Leatherwork. Use car vinyl instead of leather.

Performance

How to . . .

Improvising Materials

Improvising Materials

Anthills: If you soak chunks of the hill overnight, it will make a nice simple modelling clay.

Beads: Use Baobab seeds.

Brushes: Feathers. Use goat hair available from a butcher. Fake hair extensions.

Canvas: Use flour sacks from bakery or the market. Brown calico cloth.

Charcoal: Use branches of the Milkbush tree.

Cocoa porridge: Can be used as a paste.

Cassava starch: Can be used as a paste or as finger paints. Mix 1 part of cassava starch to 3 parts of water and stir to a smooth paste. Stirring constantly, heat over a fire until the paste thickens and is clear. There should be no lumps in it. You may need to sieve it to remove lumps. To make paint, thin with hot water if necessary, add colour, and mix well. Both the paste and the paint have a short shelf life (2 days). It doesn’t take long to make so try to make it the day of use. Great for when you need large quantities for projects like papier mâché.

Concrete bags: Several layers of paper which are very durable. Available in markets. Can be used as table covers or for drawings.

Containers: Tin cans, Milo cans. Store or mix paints or dyes. Cut mineral bottles in half lengthwise and use bottom for water jugs and top half for funnels.

D batteries: Mix the insides with water for a messy black paint. Useful for repainting worn blackboards.

Flip flops: Use for making squeegees, rubber stamps.

Flour paste: Can be put into baggies and squeezed onto the surface of cloth or paper. Let dry in the sun and then paint dye or colours onto the surface. Then flake off flour and see the design. Flour acts as a resist.

Food Colouring: Some markets sell the food coloring used in making the local candy. It is very concentrated and, when mixed with a little water, it makes a nice watercolor paint.

Guava leaves: Can be used fresh for a green-colored dye or dry for a light brown dye. Boil with rock salt and the cloth you wish to dye.

Gentian violet: Paint onto cloth or paper using a brush or use as a dye.

Hair dye: Can be used to make a grey wash for paper or cloth. Heavy paper: Spread a thin layer of cassava paste on a sheet of newspaper and place a second sheet on top. Smooth out until wrinkle free. Put weights on top to keep from wrinkling.

Henna: Use as a dye. A greenish-brown ground up leaf resembling a green spice. It is used for body painting or dying hair.

Ink: Buy one expensive bottle of black ink. Mix 3:1 or 4:1 with Gentian violet to extend the ink.

Local dyes: Colors are very bright but quality varies for fading.

Magazines: Collages, postcards, greeting cards, pop-up art, bookmarks, book covers, scrapbooks, paper beads

Memos: Save Peace Corps memos. Good for bookbinding.

Milkbush: Sap can be used as a glue. Branches can be used to make charcoal.

Salt/vinegar: Can be used to make dyes more colourfast when soaked in cold water.

Sketchbooks: Buy a ream of copier paper and staple 10 or 15 sheets together with a simple covering.

Vegetables: Yam, cassava, okra, potato good for printmaking.

Waakye: Grass reed-like material used to make the rice red in waakye. Makes a brick red dye. Boil for 30 minutes with rock salt and the cloth you want to dye.

Substitute Art Materials

Substitute Art Materials

Painting Powder paint for everyday use: 5 tablespoons powder paint 5 tbsp water Put powder paint and water in an empty container with lid and shake until the paint is thoroughly mixed. To make the paint keep better or go on more smoothly, add enough liquid starch or detergent to make it the consistency of cream.

Powder paint for larger quantities: 8 tbsp powder paint 1 tsp white library paste 2 tbsp liquid starch Add enough water to give the mixture a consistency of cream. To prevent a sour smell, add a little oil of cloves, wintergreen, or peppermint.

Using powder paint as a watercolour: For transparent watercolour, add sufficient water to the powder paint to obtain a runny consistency. For an opaque watercolour, add enough water or liquid starch to the powder paint to make a creamy consistency.

Using powder paint as coloured ink: Mix enough water with the powder paint to allow it to flow easily from a lettering pen or mechanical drawing tool.

Using powder paint as oil paint: 1. Add a few drops of glycerine and powder paint to raw linseed oil to make a thick cream consistency. Use zinc oxide with linseed oil for a while oil paint. 2. Add boiled linseed oil to powder paint and stir well. 3. Add powder paint to liquid paste. Use stiff brush.

Using powder paint as enamel: Add clear shellac, lacquer, or varnish to the powder paint until a desired brushing consistency is reached.

Using powder paint as woodstain: Mix powder paint with linseed oil or turpentine until a brushing consistency is reached. To make a waterproof lacquer, mix powder paint with a gloss oil. Or, rub crayons with the grain of the wood. Then rub the wood vigorously with a cloth saturated in linseed oil.

Cornstarch Finger Paint 1/2 cup cornstarch 1 quart boiling water Dissolve the starch in a small amount of cold water and gradually add the hot water. Cook until clear. To keep all recipes from drying, add 2 tbsp of glycerine. Add oil of cloves or wintergreen to keep from souring. For colour, use poster paint, India ink, or powdered tempera mixed with water to a smooth paste.

Liquid Starch Finger Paint Pour a tbsp of liquid starch in the center of a sheet of dampened paper. Add a small amount of powder paint. Shaker cans or saltcellars are convenient to use. Work the colour and the starch together. Spread it over the paper by hand.

Laundry Starch Finger Paint 2 quarts boiling water 1 cup soap flakes 1 cup laundry starch 1/2 cup talcum powder Dilute starch in a cupful of cold water. Add the remaining water slowly, stirring starch constantly to avoid lumping. Stir in the soap flakes and talcum powder. This will make about five pints. The soap flakes act as a binder. This recipe can be used to finger paint on glass or over a heavy coat of crayons.

Flour Finger Paint 2 cups flour 1 cup sugar 1 cup of cornstarch Mix ingredients to a thick heavy paste in cold water. Pour on enough boiling water to make a thick heavy starch, stirring constantly until clear.

Chalk Finger Paint coloured chalk water school paste oil of cloves Use finely ground coloured chalk mixed with water, school paste, and 2 drops oil of cloves. The result will be a paint with an interesting texture.

Fixatives Fixatives are used to give chalk, charcoal, or dry powder paint drawings a permanency so they will not rub off. Apply with a spray gun or old perfume atomizer. Pin drawings to a backing of newspapers or to the back of a large carton to protect walls from spray.

1. 1 part shellac and 2 parts alcohol

2. Wallpaper lacquer (use several coats)

3. Gum arabic dissolved in water to the consistency of thin mucilage. Spray lightly two or three times.

4. Mix 1 tsp of paste in 1/2 cup of water. Lay paper flat to spray. Do not let it become wet.

5. 1 gallon of alcohol and 1/2 pint of paste. Excellent for scenic effects or murals.

6. Inexpensive hairspray

Cleaners and Thinners Glue: Sponge with lukewarm water.

Grease/oil: Spot remover, cornmeal, or salt at least 1” deep.

Gum/tar: Carbon tetrachloride.

Oil paint: Turpentine acts as both cleaner and thinner, linseed oil as a thinner, soap or detergent as a cleaner.

Printer’s ink: Carbon tetrachloride is the cleaner to use and printer’s varnish for thinning.

Rubber cement: Use an eraser for cleaning and benzene for thinning.

Shellac/varnish/lacquer: Use alcohol for cleaning and thinning.

Water-base paints: Water is best for both cleaner and thinner.

Wax/paraffin: Carbon tetrachloride

Printing Inks Oil-Base Printing Ink 2 parts powder paint 1 part linseed oil 1 part varnish Will not dry quickly. Good for paper with a rough texture.

Varnish-Base Printing Ink 3 parts powder paint 1 part varnish Mix with a palette knife on glass. Use a brayer or printing roller, rolling it back and forth until the mixture is tacky before applying it to the printing block. This will dry faster than the oil-base ink and is suitable to use on nonabsorbent, smooth paper. Can be thinned with denatured alcohol.


Fabric Bleaching Flour and Sugar Sacks 1 chloride of lime water 5% sulfuric acid carbonate of soda Make a strong solution of water and chloride of lime (bleaching powder). Allow it to settle and draw off the clear liquid. Rinse the sacks in clean water with 5% sulfuric acid and then pull them slowly through the bleaching solution. Rinse well with water containing a little carbonate of soda. If colour remains, allow the fabric to stay a short time in the sulfuric acid solution. Be sure to rinse well.

Bleaching Flour and Sugar Sacks 2 Dampen sacks in tepid water. Wash well with naphtha soap. Roll tightly and dampen with kerosene. Allow them to stand overnight, wash out, and boil with a bleaching powder or naphtha soap. If the colour remains, the process should be repeated.

Bleaching Flour and Sugar Sacks 3 Use a commercial bleach, following instructions carefully.


Making Natural Dyes Collect plants, moss, herbs, roots, nuts, and so on. Chop a quantity of one of these materials and put it through a meat grinder. Cover it with water and allow it to stand overnight. Drain off the water the next morning and save it. Add a little more water to the pulp and simmer for 30 minutes. After allowing the pulp to simmer for 30 minutes, drain off the water and add it to the first water. Add enough water to cover the fabric.

Dyeing the Material Rinse the fabric or wool in hot water, wring it well, and then place it in the dye, making sure it is well covered. Bring the dye to a simmering stage and cook until the fabric is coloured as deeply as you wish. Rinse the material in lukewarm water. Squeeze lightly but do not wring. Avoid direct rays of sunlight while drying.

Screen Printing Tempera Paint Silk Screen Ink tempera paint soap flakes water Add a small quantity of soap flakes to the tempera to give it viscosity and to deter drying. Add water only if necessary. If paint is too thick, it will clog the screen. If too thin, it will run. Finger paint of a creamy consistency can also be used.

Liquid Starch Silk Screen Paint liquid starch powder paint Add liquid starch to powder paint until it is the consistency of light paste.

Paste Cassava Paste cassava starch water Sieve the cassava starch to remove all lumps. Mix with water and stir to smooth consistency. Bring to boil, stirring constantly. It will thicken quickly and turn transparent. Add more water if paste is too thick. Cool and keep in covered jar. Lasts from one to three days. Excellent for paper mâché.

Flour Paste 1/2 c flour water Add enough water to make a thin paste. Boil 5 minutes over a slow fire, stirring constantly. Cool and thin with water. Add a few drops of wintergreen or peppermint to keep it from spoiling. Keep in a covered jar. Use in any projects requiring large quantities of paste.

Cornstarch Paste 2 tbsp cornstarch water Add enough cold water to make a smooth paste. Add boiling water until the mixture turns clear. Cook until it thickens and remove from fire. This paste becomes thicker as it cools. It may be thinned with water. Use it on tissue paper or thin cloth as it is less likely to show than flour paste.

Bookmaker’s Paste 1 tsp flour 2 tsp cornstarch 1/2 tsp powdered alum water Mix ingredients together. Add 6 tbsp of water slowly, stirring until smooth. Cook over a low flame, preferably in a double boiler. Stir constantly until the paste is thickened. Keep in air-tight jars and thin with water when necessary. Use to make notebooks and in bookmaking projects.


Modelling Material Crepe Clay 1 fold of crepe paper, any colour 1 tbsp of salt mixed with 1 cup of flour Cut the crepe paper into tiny pieces (confetti size). Place in a large bowl and add only enough water to cover the paper. Allow it to soak for 15 minutes and pour off the excess water. Add enough of the flour-salt mixture to make a stiff dough. Knead well until it is blended with the crepe paper.

Flour Clay 1 cup flour 1 cup salt 1 rounded tsp powdered alum Add water slowly and knead until a claylike consistency is reached. Wrap in a wet cloth to keep a few days. This substitute may be handled exactly like clay. When dry, it can be painted. It retains its shape without crumbling. For a coloured mixture, add powder paint to the water when mixing it.

Cornstarch Clay 1/2 cup cornstarch 1 cup salt 1 cup boiling water Boil to a soft-ball stage and knead on wax paper until malleable. Wrap in a wet cloth to keep a few days. This substitute may be handled exactly like clay. When dry, it can be painted. It retains its shape without crumbling. For a coloured mixture, add powder paint to the water when mixing it.

Papier Mâché Pulp Tear newspapers, paper plates, or egg cartons into fine bits. Cover with water and soak for 24 hours in a non rusting container. Put mixture in a cloth bag and squeeze to get rid of excess water. Work on a wax paper surface so water will not damage the table or the desk. Add ONE of the following for each quart of pulp: 6 tbsp flour 6 tbsp dry laundry starch 1 cup liquid starch 1 cup thin library paste 1 cup wheat paste mixed to consistency of cream 1 cup boiled flour paste

A few drops of wintergreen oil or oil of cloves will help keep the pulp from souring. A little salt added to the mixture will prevent fermentation. Knead to the consistency of soft modelling clay. Drying may take as long as a week.

Quick-Drying Pulp 4 cups papier mâché pulp 1 cup plaster of Paris 1/2 tsp commercial glue Knead to the consistency of heavy dough. It will dry in three to six hours.

Sawdust 1 2 cups sawdust 1 cup flour 1 tbsp glue hot water or liquid starch Moisten with water or starch until you reach a modeling consistency. If being used for ornaments, strings or wires should be put in place while they are being modelled. May be painted when dry.

Sawdust 2 sawdust wallpaper paste water Mix equal parts. If the mixture is sticky, add more sawdust.

Sawdust 3 3 cups sawdust 1 cup wheat paste water Add enough water to mix the ingredients. Do not make it too stiff.

Sawdust 4 1 cup sawdust 1 cup plaster of Paris thin glue Mix together. Add enough glue to hold it together.

Sawdust 5 2 cups sawdust 1 cup plaster of Paris 1/2 cup wheat or wallpaper paste 2 cups water Mix ingredients. Add water gradually until a modeling consistency is reached. Excellent for puppet heads, fruits, vegetables, masks, figures, animals.

Sawdust 6 1/2 pint flour 1 quart water 1 tsp alum 1 tsp oil of cloves sawdust Cook flour and water until a creamy stage is reached. Add alum. Remove from the stove and add oil of cloves. Stir in enough sawdust to make a modeling consistency. May be painted with powder paints or other colouring media when dry.

Texture Sawdust sawdust powder paint water Mix the powder paint with water to a thin cream consistency. Spread it over sawdust and stir well. Spread on a newspaper to dry. Use it to sprinkle on a glued surface for a textured effect.

Sawdust Mix for Relief Maps Add a teaspoon of commercial glue to any of the above recipes to increase the adhesive quality of the sawdust mix when applying it to a wooden surface.

Dough 1 2 cups flour 2 cups salt water Mix. Add enough water to make a creamy consistency. Powder paint or other colouring may be added or it may be painted after it is dry. Excellent for relief maps. Build elevations in layers, allowing each to dry before adding another.

Dough 2 1/2 cup soft bread crumbs 1/2 cup flour 1/2 tsp powdered alum beaten egg white Mix all ingredients together and colour with powder paint or water colours.

Dough 3 1 cup flour 1/2 cup salt 3 tsp powdered alum water Add enough water to make proper consistency.

Dough 4 1 cup cornstarch 1 cup salt 1 cup cold water Mix ingredients thoroughly and cook over low heat, stirring constantly until mixture stiffens into a lump. Cool and allow to set until it does not stick to the fingers. A few drops of food colouring or powder paint may be added to the mixture for colour. For Christmas ornaments, this dough may be cut with cookie cutters or pressed into a mold. Holes for hanging may be punched with a toothpick before the ornament is dry. Glitter, sequins, feathers may be pressed into the damp ornaments.

Play Dough 500 ml flour 75 ml salt 2 tbsp cooking oil 2 tbsp food colouring 1 liter water Mix dry ingredients separately. Boil water in a large pot. Add oil and food colouring to boiling water. Turn heat low. Mix for two or three minutes until mixture forms a ball and doesn’t stick to pot. Let it cool. Turn it out and knead. Store in airtight container, preferably in refrigerator or cool spot.


Plaster and Paraffin Modeling Plaster of Paris 1 quart water 4 cups plaster of Paris Add plaster of Paris to water until a small mound stays on the surface of the water and then stir until it thickens. Be sure to remove small lumps. Powder paint can be added to the dry plaster to tint it. Pour into a mould, form, or box of heavy paper the size desired for carving. The mould should be a little larger than the size of the finished carving. Do not use aluminum ware or a sink (the plaster will lodge in the drain pipes). After plaster has set it can be removed from the form. Even though still wet, it is ready for carving. It will stay damp for several days or can be resoaked in water and then carved or shaped with tools.

Paraffin Melt paraffin in a double boiler or a pan placed in boiling water, never directly over the fire. Pour it into another container. When it has solidified but is still soft, model it as you would any other plastic material. The warmth of the hands will keep it soft, especially if you dip your hands in warm water. If colour is wanted, shave a little wax crayon into the paraffin while it is melting. A marbleised effect is brought about by adding the wax crayon after the paraffin is melted. Crushed coloured chalk may also be added. When the object is moulded, dip it in cold water to harden. Polish the paraffin by rubbing over it with a cotton cloth.

Gesso Gesso 1 10 tsp whiting (precipitated chalk) 6 tsp glue 4 tsp boiled linseed oil 1 tsp varnish water to make a thick cream Whiting can be purchased at most hardware stores. Boil the ingredients for 10 minutes in a double boiler. Colour by adding powder paint.

Gesso 2 3 envelopes Knox gelatin 3 or more handfuls whiting 16 oz cold water Combine water and gelatin in the top of a double boiler. Soak for 10 minutes. Heat until it becomes liquid. Add whiting. Mix with a brush and strain through cheesecloth. Gesso is especially good for making relief designs. Powder paint or metallic powder will colour it. Gesso can also be molded and, when dry, carved with a fingernail or a pencil.

Sources of Materials

Acrilex
809 11th Lane
P.O. Box 3474
Osu-Accra
0302 777399
Acrylic paint for painting, screening, fabric, glass; brushes; general art supplies; decoupage material; paper

Deaf Art

Living and Working at a Deaf School in Ghana!

Okay, so, you are a PCV at a deaf school in Ghana! Your job is one of the most special assignments in all of Peace Corps and one of the most fun. The nature of the job does, however, present unique challenges and provides unique rewards. What follows is a collection of musings about living and working in a Ghanaian deaf school, advice about how to successfully live with and teach deaf students, and some project ideas that have been especially successful in the past. This information comes from some of the deaf art teachers from the 2009-11 Education group – Joy, Carol, Nancy, and Katharyn.

Topics

Sign Language

Sign Language Dictionary with video by American Sign Language Pro
Sign Language Browser with video by Michigan State University

How to Teach Deaf Students

Classroom Management

Art Project Ideas

The projects that are italicized have samples in the photo section.

Making Pictures, Drawing, and Colour Work

Pattern Making, Printmaking, and Lettering

Performance

Weaving and Stitching

Modeling and Casting

Construction/Assemblage and Paperwork

How to Display Art

Good Resources for Art Projects

In addition to the official Creative Arts textbooks and student workbooks, good resources include:

Prince, Art is Fundamental
Watt, The Usborne Book of Art Projects (crafty, U.K.)
Nancy Beal, The Art of Teaching Art to Children (U.S.)
Evans, How to Teach Art to Children (elements of art, Evan-Moor, U.S.)
Jane Bull, Make It! (recycling, U.K.)
Susan Milord, Adventures in Art (crafty projects, U.S.)
Dick Blick lesson plans
Crayola lesson plans
Google “art teacher blogs” for many, many ideas.
You will do some workshops on Ghanaian arts and crafts during training. You can also take workshops on your own all over Ghana, e.g., kente weaving, batik, pottery, woodcarving, basketry, house painting designs, adinkra stamping, bead making, calabash, and screen printing. Some of these things are included on the syllabus, and you’ll be expected to teach them. Or you may just get really interested and want to make a personal study of one. One volunteer, who recently left, became a master kente weaver.

Other Projects

Materials

Unless you are very lucky, don’t expect your school to supply you with materials for teaching art. Sometimes you will be reimbursed and sometimes you won’t. You will have to be very creative. You can have your students make things to sell (e.g., jewelry) to pay for supplies.

General Advice

Appendices

Spelling Bee List Africa African North America South America Europe Asia Australia China Japan teacher professor school primary think wonder deaf hearing blind disability ability soon shy doctor nurse dentist office district complete final commandment children parents church mosque traditional religion education advance begin finish graduate competition question training practice memorisation resource fufu potato vegetable fruit rectangle prefect monitor watchman mortar mango banana chocolate Koforidua illness individual persevere suffer discipline integrity character illiterate crazy terrible disgusting despise vomit adore frigid sweaty truck obese hungry population pollution search greedy cleanse sunlight darkness sacrifice exhibit station internet leaves grass plant genius where location place dirty mosquito first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth health weight heavy believe progress understand spelling discuss letter communication quick encourage post office decide create better best office husband wife fast culture aeroplane boat lorry farmer banker January February March April July August September October November December world listen keys gigantic miniature certificate document spelling interesting mature minister enter forward infant reduce conflict minute prefer dislike happen far close weep strange pocket empty broken letter locked view itchy attempt advice alligator hippopotamus impossible possible insect swim murder shrink damage destroy authority soldier defend define disappoint depressed unusual disappear history discover discourage disrespect donate twin manufacture marriage wedding ceremony hurry interpret pound million hilarious coconut mistake accident blame mixture morning afternoon evening night muscle bones skeleton brain intestines interview international investigate island target technology television temperature thirsty through thousand tomorrow tonight toothbrush transfer

Art Vocabulary/How to Explain and Describe Art Things in ASL

ASL is a fantastic language for some things (telling stories, displaying obvious emotions, joking around) and not so fantastic for other things (describing particular emotions or abstract things). While English can be a very specific language, with individual words for everything, ASL is more limited in its vocabulary. Because of this, because there aren’t signs for specific art words, it’s sometimes difficult to explain an artistic idea to your students. This is one Volunteer’s (Nancy’s) experience with it: “It took me a long time to figure out that there are no art signs for teaching other than cut, paste, etc. It wasn’t until I was trying to explain the resist technique in batik that I realised that you have to approach the language in a whole different way. I worked with one of the better teachers and we came up with ‘enter colour can’t.’” And this is the best way to do it; if there is not a sign for what you are trying to teach, describe it in a different way. The following is a list of some art vocabulary words and ways that you can explain them in Sign. Just do the signs in the order that they appear.

Ghana

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